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Human red cell AQP1 is the first functionally defined member of the aquaporin family of membrane water channels. Here we describe an atomic model of AQP1 at 3.8A resolution from electron crystallographic data. Multiple highly conserved amino-acid residues stabilize the novel fold of AQP1. The aqueous pathway is lined with conserved hydrophobic residues that(More)
The entry and exit of water from cells is a fundamental process of life. Recognition of the high water permeability of red blood cells led to the proposal that specialized water pores exist in the plasma membrane. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and functional studies of an erythrocyte integral membrane protein of relative molecular mass 28,000, identified it(More)
The static mechanical properties of major branches of the human arteries (common carotid artery, abdominal aorta, femoral artery, and brachial artery) were studied in 39 subjects, aged 6-81 years, using an ultrasonic phase locked echo tracking system that allows continuous transcutaneous measurement of the diameter of the artery. The stiffness indices were(More)
Electron crystallography has the potential to visualise the charge status of atoms. This is due to the significantly different scattering factors of neutral and ionised atoms for electrons in the low-resolution range (typically less than 5 A). In previous work, we observed two different types of densities around acidic residues in the experimental (|Fo|)(More)
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique in depicting the tumor cellularity and grading of gliomas. Twenty consecutive patients (13 men and 7 women, ranging in age from 13 to 69 years) with histologically proven gliomas were examined using a 1.5 T(More)
OBJECTIVE Our purpose was to evaluate the relationships between the ratio of maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) (rCBV ratio = rCBV[tumor]/rCBV[contralateral white matter]) and histologic and angiographic vascularities of gliomas using the gradient-echo echoplanar MR imaging technique. We also evaluated the usefulness of rCBV maps for grading(More)
Human diploid fibroblasts eventually lose the capacity to replicate in culture and enter a viable but nonproliferative state of senescence. Recently, it has been demonstrated that retroviral-mediated gene transfer into primary fibroblasts of an activated ras gene (V12ras) rapidly accelerates development of the senescent phenotype. Using this in vitro(More)
Human histone deacetylases I (HDAC1) and II (HDAC2) are homologous proteins (84% identity) that catalyze release of acetyl groups from modified N-terminal lysines of core histones. Histone deacetylation is correlated with both transient and persistent states of transcriptional inactivity (i.e. silencing) in many eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed(More)
Bacteriorhodopsin is a transmembrane protein that uses light energy, absorbed by its chromophore retinal, to pump protons from the cytoplasm of bacteria such as Halobacterium salinarium into the extracellular space. It is made up of seven alpha-helices, and in the bacterium forms natural, two-dimensional crystals called purple membranes. We have analysed(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although the prognostic value of perfusion MR imaging in various gliomas has been investigated, that in high-grade astrocytomas alone has not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate retrospectively whether the tumor maximum relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) on pretreatment perfusion MR imaging is of(More)