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BACKGROUND Fertility protection is an urgent clinical problem for prepubertal male oncology patients who undergo either chemotherapy or radiotherapy. As these patients do not have mature sperm to be frozen, there is as yet no effective method to preserve their fertility. METHODS AND RESULTS Single pieces of immature mouse (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 mm) or rabbit(More)
Notch is involved in the cell fate determination of many cell lineages. The intracellular region (RAMIC) of Notch1 transactivates genes by interaction with a DNA binding protein RBP-J. We have compared the activities of mouse RAMIC and its derivatives in transactivation and differentiation suppression of myogenic precursor cells. RAMIC comprises two(More)
Programmed death I (PD-I)-deficient mice develop a variety of autoimmune-like diseases, which suggests that this immunoinhibitory receptor plays an important role in tolerance. We identify here PD-1 ligand 2 (PD-L2) as a second ligand for PD-1 and compare the function and expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Engagement of PD-1 by PD-L2 dramatically inhibits T(More)
The classical type of programmed cell death is characterized by its dependence on de novo RNA and protein synthesis and morphological features of apoptosis. We confirmed that stimulated 2B4.11 (a murine T-cell hybridoma) and interleukin-3 (IL-3)-deprived LyD9 (a murine haematopoietic progenitor cell line) died by the classical type of programmed cell death.(More)
The pancreas contains both exocrine and endocrine cells, but the molecular mechanisms controlling the differentiation of these cell types are largely unknown. Despite their endodermal origin, pancreatic endocrine cells share several molecular characteristics with neurons, and, like neurons in the central nervous system, differentiating endocrine cells in(More)
The Notch pathway functions in multiple cell fate determination processes in invertebrate embryos, including the decision between the neuroblast and epidermoblast lineages in Drosophila. In the mouse, targeted mutation of the Notch pathway genes Notch1 and RBP-Jk has demonstrated a role for these genes in somite segmentation, but a function in neurogenesis(More)
The RBP-J kappa protein is a transcription factor that recognizes the sequence C(T)GTGGGGA. The RBP-J kappa gene is highly conserved in a wide variety of species and the Drosophila homologue has been shown to be identical to Suppressor of Hairless [Su(H)] which plays important roles in the development of the peripheral nervous system. To explore the(More)
Class switch recombination (CSR) is a region-specific DNA recombination reaction that replaces one immunoglobulin heavy-chain constant region (Ch) gene with another. This enables a single variable (V) region gene to be used in conjunction with different downstream Ch genes, each having a unique biological activity. The molecular mechanisms that mediate CSR(More)
The alymphoplasia (aly) mutation of mouse is autosomal recessive and characterized by the systemic absence of lymph nodes (LN) and Peyer's patches (PP) and disorganized splenic and thymic structures with immunodeficiency. Although recent reports have shown that the interaction between lymphotoxin (LT) and the LT beta-receptor (Ltbeta r, encoded by Ltbr)(More)
We have identified a novel gene referred to as activation-induced deaminase (AID) by subtraction of cDNAs derived from switch-induced and uninduced murine B lymphoma CH12F3-2 cells, more than 80% of which switch exclusively to IgA upon stimulation. The amino acid sequence encoded by AID cDNA is homologous to that of apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA-editing(More)