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The movements of cilia and flagella are driven by multiple species of dynein heavy chains (DHCs), which constitute inner- and outer-dynein arms. In Chlamydomonas, 11 DHC proteins have been identified in the axoneme, but 14 genes encoding axonemal DHCs are present in the genome. Here, we assigned each previously unassigned DHC gene to a particular DHC(More)
Ciliary and flagellar axonemes are basically composed of nine outer doublet microtubules and several functional components, e.g. dynein arms, radial spokes, and interdoublet links. Each A-tubule of the doublet contains a specialized "ribbon" of three protofilaments composed of tubulin and other proteins postulated to specify the three-dimensional(More)
Understanding the molecular architecture of the flagellum is crucial to elucidate the bending mechanism produced by this complex organelle. The current known structure of the flagellum has not yet been fully correlated with the complex composition and localization of flagellar components. Using cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging while(More)
Memory deduplication shares same-content memory pages and reduces the consumption of physical memory. It is effective on environments that run many virtual machines with the same operating system. Memory deduplication, however, is vulnerable to memory disclosure attacks, which reveal the existence of an application or file on another virtual machine. Such(More)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia most often arises from loss of the dynein motors that power ciliary beating. Here we show that DNAAF3 (also known as PF22), a previously uncharacterized protein, is essential for the preassembly of dyneins into complexes before their transport into cilia. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the human DNAAF3 gene in(More)
Ciliary and flagellar axonemes contain multiple inner arm dyneins of which the functional difference is largely unknown. In this study, a Chlamydomonas mutant, ida9, lacking inner arm dynein c was isolated and shown to carry a mutation in the DHC9 dynein heavy chain gene. The cDNA sequence of DHC9 was determined, and its information was used to show that(More)
Chlamydomonas flagella undergo a striking waveform conversion from an asymmetrical ciliary type to a symmetrical flagellar type when the cell is stimulated by intense light and the Ca2+ concentration within the flagellum is increased above approximately 10(-6) M. To see whether the central-pair/radial spoke system is needed for this conversion as suggested(More)
Chlamydomonas mutants missing the central pair or radial spokes are paralyzed despite the fact that they have the full wild-type complement of functional dynein ATPases. We show here that these mutants can move under conditions of low ATP concentration, a combination of ATP and ADP, and a combination of ATP and ribose-modified ATP analogs. These conditions(More)
The flagellar axoneme of the mutant pf18 lacking the central pair does not beat, but undergoes a nanometer-scale, high-frequency oscillation (hyper-oscillation) in the presence of ATP [Yagi et al., 1994: Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 29:177-185]. The present study demonstrates that the amplitude of the hyper-oscillation increases significantly in the(More)
1. Introduction Memory deduplication merges same-content memory pages and reduces the consumption of physical memory. It is effective on environments that run many virtual machines with the same operating system. However, memory deduplication is subject to software side channel attacks, which discloses memory contents. It can be used to reveal the existence(More)