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The movements of cilia and flagella are driven by multiple species of dynein heavy chains (DHCs), which constitute inner- and outer-dynein arms. In Chlamydomonas, 11 DHC proteins have been identified in the axoneme, but 14 genes encoding axonemal DHCs are present in the genome. Here, we assigned each previously unassigned DHC gene to a particular DHC(More)
Understanding the molecular architecture of the flagellum is crucial to elucidate the bending mechanism produced by this complex organelle. The current known structure of the flagellum has not yet been fully correlated with the complex composition and localization of flagellar components. Using cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging while(More)
Memory deduplication shares same-content memory pages and reduces the consumption of physical memory. It is effective on environments that run many virtual machines with the same operating system. Memory deduplication, however, is vulnerable to memory disclosure attacks, which reveal the existence of an application or file on another virtual machine. Such(More)
1. Introduction Memory deduplication merges same-content memory pages and reduces the consumption of physical memory. It is effective on environments that run many virtual machines with the same operating system. However, memory deduplication is subject to software side channel attacks, which discloses memory contents. It can be used to reveal the existence(More)
  • Hannah M. Mitchison, Miriam Schmidts, Niki T. Loges, Judy Freshour, Athina Dritsoula, Rob A. Hirst +10 others
  • 2012
Primary ciliary dyskinesia most often arises from loss of the dynein motors that power ciliary beating. Here we show that DNAAF3 (also known as PF22), a previously uncharacterized protein, is essential for the preassembly of dyneins into complexes before their transport into cilia. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the human DNAAF3 gene in(More)
BACKGROUND In flagella, the outer dynein arm (ODA) and inner dynein arm (IDA) play distinct roles in generating beating motion. However, functional communications between the two dyneins have not been investigated. RESULTS Here, we demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking that intermediate chain 2 (IC2) of ODAs interacts with the(More)
The outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC) targets the outer dynein arm to its correct binding site on the flagellar axoneme. The Chlamydomonas ODA-DC contains three proteins; loss of any one prevents normal assembly of the outer arm, leading to a slow, jerky swimming phenotype. We showed previously that the smallest ODA-DC subunit, DC3, has four(More)
  • Heymut Omran, Daisuke Kobayashi, Heike Olbrich, Tatsuya Tsukahara, Niki Tomas Loges, Haruo Hagiwara +17 others
  • 2008
Cilia and flagella are highly conserved organelles that have diverse roles in cell motility and sensing extracellular signals. Motility defects in cilia and flagella often result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. However, the mechanisms underlying cilia formation and function, and in particular the cytoplasmic assembly of dyneins that power ciliary motility,(More)
Tubulin polyglutamylation is a modification that adds multiple glutamates to the gamma-carboxyl group of a glutamate residue in the C-terminal tails of alpha- and beta-tubulin [1, 2]. This modification has been implicated in the regulation of axonal transport and ciliary motility. However, its molecular function in cilia remains unknown. Here, using a novel(More)
Current OSes include many logical sharing techniques (shared library, symbolic link, etc.) on memory and storage. Unfortunately they cause security and management problems which come from the dynamic management of logical sharing; e.g., search path replacement attack, GOT (Global Offset Table) overwrite attack, Dependency Hell, etc. This paper proposes that(More)