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The movements of cilia and flagella are driven by multiple species of dynein heavy chains (DHCs), which constitute inner- and outer-dynein arms. In Chlamydomonas, 11 DHC proteins have been identified in the axoneme, but 14 genes encoding axonemal DHCs are present in the genome. Here, we assigned each previously unassigned DHC gene to a particular DHC(More)
Ciliary and flagellar axonemes are basically composed of nine outer doublet microtubules and several functional components, e.g. dynein arms, radial spokes, and interdoublet links. Each A-tubule of the doublet contains a specialized "ribbon" of three protofilaments composed of tubulin and other proteins postulated to specify the three-dimensional(More)
Understanding the molecular architecture of the flagellum is crucial to elucidate the bending mechanism produced by this complex organelle. The current known structure of the flagellum has not yet been fully correlated with the complex composition and localization of flagellar components. Using cryoelectron tomography and subtomogram averaging while(More)
Primary ciliary dyskinesia most often arises from loss of the dynein motors that power ciliary beating. Here we show that DNAAF3 (also known as PF22), a previously uncharacterized protein, is essential for the preassembly of dyneins into complexes before their transport into cilia. We identified loss-of-function mutations in the human DNAAF3 gene in(More)
A bacterium with high poly-γ-glutamate (PGA) productivity was isolated from the traditional Korean seasoning, Chung-Kook-Jang. This bacterium could be classified as a Bacillus subtilis, but sporulation in culture was infrequent in the absence of Mn2+. It was judged to be a variety of B. subtilis and designated B. subtilis (chungkookjang). L-Glutamate(More)
The outer dynein arm-docking complex (ODA-DC) targets the outer dynein arm to its correct binding site on the flagellar axoneme. The Chlamydomonas ODA-DC contains three proteins; loss of any one prevents normal assembly of the outer arm, leading to a slow, jerky swimming phenotype. We showed previously that the smallest ODA-DC subunit, DC3, has four(More)
Ciliary and flagellar axonemes contain multiple inner arm dyneins of which the functional difference is largely unknown. In this study, a Chlamydomonas mutant, ida9, lacking inner arm dynein c was isolated and shown to carry a mutation in the DHC9 dynein heavy chain gene. The cDNA sequence of DHC9 was determined, and its information was used to show that(More)
BACKGROUND In flagella, the outer dynein arm (ODA) and inner dynein arm (IDA) play distinct roles in generating beating motion. However, functional communications between the two dyneins have not been investigated. RESULTS Here, we demonstrated by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking that intermediate chain 2 (IC2) of ODAs interacts with the(More)
Cilia and flagella are highly conserved organelles that have diverse roles in cell motility and sensing extracellular signals. Motility defects in cilia and flagella often result in primary ciliary dyskinesia. However, the mechanisms underlying cilia formation and function, and in particular the cytoplasmic assembly of dyneins that power ciliary motility,(More)
To estimate the role that time and size had in controlling the Chlamydomonas cell cycle, we used a new on-chip single-cell microcultivation system, which involved the direct observation of single cells captured in microchambers made on a thin glass slide. The dependence of the pattern of energy supply for cells on its cell cycle was examined through a(More)