Toshiki Kobayashi

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Personality, and in particular temperament, is thought to have a biological basis. In the present study, the relationships between regional brain glucose metabolism and temperament have been investigated. Regional brain glucose metabolism was measured using [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in 31 healthy subjects. Temperament was(More)
Alignment - the process and measured orientation of the prosthetic socket relative to the foot - is important for proper function of a transtibial prosthesis. Prosthetic alignment is performed by prosthetists using visual gait observation and amputees' feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on(More)
Recent functional neuroimaging studies have suggested that specific brain regions might be associated with the formation of anxiety-related personality traits, which are well known to be influenced by gender. Such anxiety-related personality traits are one of the representative predisposing factors for mood and anxiety disorders, whose incidence is also(More)
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE To investigate the methodology using a manual ankle joint resistive torque measurement device to evaluate the contribution of the neural component of ankle joint resistive torque in patients with stroke. RESEARCH DESIGN Within-subject comparison to compare the ankle joint resistive torque between fast and slow stretching conditions. (More)
Alignment is important for comfortable and stable gait of lower-limb prosthesis users. The magnitude of socket reaction moments in the multiple planes acting simultaneously upon the residual limb may be related to perception of comfort in individuals using prostheses through socket interface pressures. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of(More)
Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can improve gait in patients with hemiplegia. However, it is anecdotally known that excessive plantarflexion resistance of an AFO could induce undesired knee flexion at early stance. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the effect of varying the degrees of plantarflexion resistance of an AFO on knee flexion(More)
The alignment of a lower limb prosthesis affects the way load is transferred to the residual limb through the socket, and this load is critically important for the comfort and function of the prosthesis. Both magnitude and duration of the moment are important factors that may affect the residual limb health. Moment impulse is a well-accepted measurement(More)
Alignment of lower limb prostheses is important for the gait of amputees. Observed deviations in a particular plane are corrected by altering the prosthetic alignment of the same plane. The assumption is that observed deviations are due to alignment errors within the same plane, but no research has confirmed this assumption. Therefore, the aim of this study(More)
A person with amputation's subjective perception is the only tool available to describe fit and comfort to a prosthetist. However, few studies have investigated the effect of alignment on this perception. The aim of this article is to determine whether people with amputation could perceive the alignment perturbations of their prostheses and effectively(More)
We performed this review to provide a clearer understanding of how to effectively measure ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) rigidity. This information is important to ensure appropriate orthotic intervention in the treatment of patients with pathological gait. The two main approaches to the investigation of AFO rigidity are (1) bench-testing analyses, in which an(More)