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Water droplets on rugged hydrophobic surfaces typically exhibit one of the following two states: (i) the Wenzel state [Wenzel RN (1936) Ind Eng Chem 28:988-994] in which water droplets are in full contact with the rugged surface (referred as the wetted contact) or (ii) the Cassie state [Cassie, ABD, Baxter S (1944) Trans Faraday Soc 40:546-551] in which(More)
The Ras protein and its homolog, Rap1A, have an identical "effector region" (residues 32-40) preceded by Asp30-Glu31 and Glu30-Lys31, respectively. In the complex of the "Ras-like" E30D/K31E mutant Rap1A with the Ras-binding domain (RBD), residues 51-131 of Raf-1, Glu31 in Rap1A forms a tight salt bridge with Lys84 in Raf-1. However, we have recently found(More)
We performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of 9 million pairs of NaCl ions with the Ewald summation and obtained a calculation speed of 1.34 Tflops. In this calculation we used a special-purpose computer, MDM, which we are developing for the calculations of the Coulomb and van der Waals forces. The MDM enabled us to perform large-scale MD simulations(More)
We performed large-scale molecular-dynamics simulation of nanoscale hydrophobic interaction manifested by the formation of nanobubble between nanometer-sized hydrophobic clusters at constrained equilibrium. Particular attention is placed on the tendency of formation and stability of nanobubbles in between model nanoassemblies which are composed of(More)
We describe the GRAPE-4 (Gravity Pipe 4) system, a special-purpose computer for astrophysical N-body simulations. In N-body simulations, most of the computing time is spent to calculate the force between particles, since the number of interactions is proportional to the square of the number of particles. For many problems the accuracy of fast algorithms(More)
Understanding the role of 'epigenetic' changes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling has now become critical in understanding many biological processes. In order to delineate the global methylation pattern in a given genomic DNA, computer software has been developed to create a virtual image of restriction landmark genomic scanning (Vi-RLGS).(More)
Activated receptor tyrosine kinases bind the Shc adaptor protein through its N-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) and C-terminal Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. After binding, Shc is phosphorylated within the central collagen-homology (CH) linker region on Tyr-317, a residue remote to both the PTB and SH2 domains. Shc phosphorylation plays a pivotal role(More)
RNA polymerase (Pol) II is a fundamental and important enzyme in the transcription process. However, two mysterious questions have remained unsolved: how an unwound bubble of DNA is established and maintained, and how the enzyme moves along the DNA. To answer these questions, we constructed a model structure of the Pol II elongation complex with the 50 base(More)
In this paper, we describe the performance and accuracy of the P 2 M 2 tree code. The P 2 M 2 tree code is a high-accuracy tree code based on the pseudoparticle multipole method (P 2 M 2). P 2 M 2 is a method to express multipole expansion using a small number of pseudoparticles. The potential field of physical particles is approximated by the field(More)