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Messenger RNA transcripts of the highly pigmented murine melanoma B16-F1 cells were compared with those from their weakly pigmented derivative B16-F10 cells by differential display. A novel gene called msg1 (melanocyte-specific gene) was found to be expressed at high levels in B16-F1 cells but at low levels in B16-F10 cells. Expression of msg1 was(More)
Strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) display a high degree of biological heterogeneity which may be linked to certain clinical manifestation of AIDS. They vary in their ability to infect different cell types, to replicate rapidly and to high titre in culture, to down-modulate the CD4 receptor, and to cause cytopathic changes in infected(More)
CITED1, a CBP/p300-binding nuclear protein that does not bind directly to DNA, is a transcriptional coregulator. Here, we show evidence that CITED1 functions as a selective coactivator for estrogen-dependent transcription. When transfected, CITED1 enhanced transcriptional activation by the ligand-binding/AF2 domain of both estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha)(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members signal through a unique set of intracellular proteins called Smads. Smad4, previously identified as the tumor suppressor DPC4, is functionally distinct among the Smad family, and is required for the assembly and transcriptional activation of diverse, Smad-DNA complexes. We previously identified a(More)
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are present at low concentrations in the peripheral blood of patients with solid tumors. It has been proposed that the isolation, ex vivo culture, and characterization of CTCs may provide an opportunity to noninvasively monitor the changing patterns of drug susceptibility in individual patients as their tumors acquire new(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strains display a high degree of heterogeneity in their biological properties that correlate with in vivo pathogenesis of the virus. We previously demonstrated that overlapping regions encompassing the third hypervariable domain (V3), within the envelope glycoprotein gp120 determine the tropisms of HIV-1 for(More)
It has been suggested that DNA methylation plays a crucial role in genomic imprinting and X inactivation. Using DNA methyltransferase 1 (Dnmt1)-deficient mouse embryos carrying X-linked lacZ transgenes, we studied the effects of genomic demethylation on X inactivation. Based on the expression pattern of lacZ, the imprinted X inactivation in the visceral(More)
The MSG1 nuclear protein has a strong transcriptional activating activity but does not bind directly to DNA. When cotransfected, MSG1 enhances transcription mediated by the Smad transcription factors in mammalian cells in a manner dependent on ligand-induced Smad hetero-oligomerization. However, the mechanism of this MSG1 effect has been unknown. We now(More)
Smad4 plays a pivotal role in signal transduction of the transforming growth factor beta superfamily cytokines by mediating transcriptional activation of target genes. Hetero-oligomerization of Smad4 with the pathway-restricted SMAD proteins is essential for Smad4-mediated transcription. We provide evidence that SMAD hetero-oligomerization is directly(More)
Fas ligand (FasL) plays a pivotal role in lymphocyte cytotoxicity and the maintenance of immunological homeostasis. Since FasL has been implicated in the existence of immunologically privileged body sites by inducing apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes, we investigated the expression of FasL in human colon cancers. We found that two out of seven primary(More)