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A new database system named KEGG is being organised to computerize functional aspects of genes and genomes in terms of the binary relations of interacting molecules or genes. We are currently working on the metabolic pathway database that is composed of three interconnected sections: genes, molecules, and pathways, which are also linked to a number of(More)
OBJECTIVES Interleukin (IL)-22 acts on non-immune cells to induce anti-microbial responses, protection from tissue damage, and enhance cell regeneration. However, little is known about the involvement of IL-22 in periodontal biology. This study investigated the biological effects of IL-22 on periodontal ligament (PDL) cells as part of studies to assess the(More)
MHC class I-related chain molecules A and B (MICA and B) expressed on the cell-surface of tumor cells are ligands for an activating receptor, NKG2D, expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and stimulate the NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. On the other hand, the soluble form of MICA and B produced by proteolytic cleavage of cell-surface MIC interferes with NK(More)
In advanced knowledge processing, partial information plays an important role in coping with complex data and knowledge. To handle such information, we developed the knowledge representation language (which may be regarded as a deductive object-oriented database language) QU IXOT E. The language has the features of both logic and object-orientation(More)
Multidrug efflux pumps play an important role as a self-defense system in bacteria. Bacterial multidrug efflux pumps are classified into five families based on structure and coupling energy: resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND), small multidrug resistance (SMR), major facilitator (MF), ATP binding cassette (ABC), and multidrug and toxic compounds(More)
In legal reasoning systems, a typical application of normative reasoning, partial information plays an important role in the representation and reasoning of legal knowledge. To construct a legal knowledge-base with partial information, many features are required of knowledge representation languages. In this paper, we discuss the representation of(More)
A DNA fragment responsible for resistance to antimicrobial agents was cloned from chromosomal DNA of Enterococcus faecium FN-1, a clinically isolated strain. Escherichia coli KAM32, a drug-hypersusceptible mutant, was used as a host for gene cloning. Cells of E. coli KAM32 harboring a recombinant plasmid (pTFM8) carrying the DNA fragment became resistant to(More)