Toshihiro Kawai

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OBJECTIVES PD-L1 (also B7-H1) and PD-L2 (also B7-DC) are ligands for programmed death-1 (PD-1), which is a member of the CD28/B7 superfamily of costimulatory molecules and plays an inhibitory role on the periphery. Impaired regulation of this system may cause disruption to self-tolerance leading to autoimmunity; however, the role of these molecules in the(More)
AIM Serum antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) of the IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses has been reported to be predominant in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis from developed countries. No data are available as to the significance of AMA subtypes in Japanese primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients who have previously manifested unique serological features, nor(More)
Restorative proctocolectomy has become the most common surgical option for familial adenomatous polyposis patients, based on the premise that the technique yields good functional results and reduces colorectal cancer risk. However, several adenomas may develop in the pouch mucosa in later years, and even cancer (at the anastomosis or in the pouch mucosa)(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) is frequently used to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian countries. However, there is a lack of evidence supporting the use of HAIC. SUMMARY Many studies report high response rates in patients with advanced HCC receiving HAIC, and clinical responses translate to survival(More)
PURPOSE The prognosis in advanced biliary carcinoma has remained poor. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of intraarterial 5-fluorouracil and interferon therapy against unresectable biliary carcinoma. METHODS Patients with unresectable biliary carcinoma with performance status 0 or 1 were enrolled between January 2002 and September(More)
BACKGROUND The outcomes of treatment of ruptured varices in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT) are unclear. We therefore evaluated the long- (rebleeding and death) and short-term (immediate death within 24 h of variceal bleeding diagnosis) outcomes of patients with PVTT who underwent emergency variceal band(More)
AIM Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment reduces IgM serum levels in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) without affecting serum antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) titers. We previously reported that PBC-associated hyper-IgM is secondary to a disease-specific hyperproduction following bacterial stimulation by B cells. METHODS We isolated(More)
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