Toshihiro Itoh

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The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been increasing in pathogenicity in diverse avian species since 1996 and are now widespread in Asian, European, and African countries. To better understand the basis of the increased pathogenicity of recent Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens, we compared the fevers and mean death times(More)
Archaea have unique membrane lipids typified by ether linkages of the glycerol-to-isoprenoid chains with sn-2,3 stereochemistry that runs against the naturally occurring sn-1,2 stereochemistry of the glycerophospholipids of Bacteria and Eukarya. Membrane lipids were extracted and analyzed from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakaraensis,(More)
Melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to be associated with food intake in addition to body color change in teleosts. MSH is encoded by a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene together with endorphin (END). To assess the significance of MSH to biological activities, we determined the structure and evaluated the expression of POMC mRNA in barfin(More)
The structures of three kinds of phospholipids (PL-X, PL-Y, and PL-T) isolated from Thermoplasma acid-ophilum have been characterized. The core lipid of PL-Y was caldarchaeol, and that of PL-X was archaeol. The composition of the hydrocarbon chains of the PL-T core lipid was C20 phytane and C40 isoprenoid in a molar ratio of 2 to 1. The major molecular(More)
A spherical thermoacidophilic archaeon, strain TA-2, was obtained from acidic hot springs located in Ohwaku Valley, Hakone, Japan. This isolate is an obligate aerobic chemoorganoheterotroph that grows optimally at about 75°C, pH 2.8. The G+C content of DNA from TA-2 is 47 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene from TA-2 showed more than 99% similarity with those of(More)
OBJECTIVE Average length of inpatient stay at psychiatric hospitals in Japan has been consistently longer than that in any other developed country, and was 330 days in 1996. Although some reforms have been implemented with the intention of decreasing length of stay (LOS), appreciable reductions have not been achieved. The present study examined hospital(More)
We study ultrafast operation of multiple-valued quantizers composed of resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The operation principle of these quantizers is based on the monostable-multistable transition logic (MML) of series-connected RTDs. The quantizers are fabricated by monolithically integrating InP-based RTDs(More)
The molecular basis of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in chickens remains largely unknown. H5N1 A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 virus (CkYM7) replicates rapidly in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells in chickens, causing sudden death without fever or gross lesions, while H5N1 A/duck/Yokohama/aq10/2003 virus (DkYK10)(More)
Effects of noise on the secretion of salivary chromogranin A (CgA), which is considered to be a substitute measure of catecholamines, were investigated in a laboratory experiment. This study included 20 male subjects with normal hearing; their ages ranged from 21 to 24 years. Prior to the experiment, the subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire(More)