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We present a new MEMS probe card made of electroplated Ni micro-cantilevers, which has compliant structures, and uses a kind of electric breakdown, or fritting, to make electric contacts to electrodes on ICs. The characteristics of fritting contact between Ni probe and Al electrodes were investigated, and Ni was found to have lower contact resistance than(More)
SUMMARY We study ultrafast operation of multiple-valued quantizers composed of resonant-tunneling diodes (RTDs) and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). The operation principle of these quantizers is based on the monostable-multistable transition logic (MML) of series-connected RTDs. The quantizers are fabricated by monolithically integrating(More)
The Asian H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses have been increasing in pathogenicity in diverse avian species since 1996 and are now widespread in Asian, European, and African countries. To better understand the basis of the increased pathogenicity of recent Asian H5N1 HPAI viruses in chickens, we compared the fevers and mean death times(More)
Archaea have unique membrane lipids typified by ether linkages of the glycerol-to-isoprenoid chains with sn-2,3 stereochemistry that runs against the naturally occurring sn-1,2 stereochemistry of the glycerophospholipids of Bacteria and Eukarya. Membrane lipids were extracted and analyzed from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Thermococcus kodakaraensis,(More)
The molecular basis of pathogenicity of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses in chickens remains largely unknown. H5N1 A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/2004 virus (CkYM7) replicates rapidly in macrophages and vascular endothelial cells in chickens, causing sudden death without fever or gross lesions, while H5N1 A/duck/Yokohama/aq10/2003 virus (DkYK10)(More)
The increasing prevalence of drug-resistant HIV transmission has become a critical epidemic in the world today. Studies in developed countries reported 8-27% of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS patients are infected by drug-resistant strains. To determine the prevalence of drug-resistant HIV-1 among newly diagnosed cases in Japan, eight HIV/AIDS clinical centers,(More)
Melanophore-stimulating hormone (MSH) has been shown to be associated with food intake in addition to body color change in teleosts. MSH is encoded by a proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene together with endorphin (END). To assess the significance of MSH to biological activities, we determined the structure and evaluated the expression of POMC mRNA in barfin(More)
To identify critical phenotypes that affect avian influenza virus transmission in chickens, we compared the transmissibility of three H5N1 highly pathogenic viruses of different pathogenicity in chickens by monitoring the exact time of death using wireless thermo-sensors. This study showed that, despite quick deaths, the most virulent H5N1(More)
A cell-fusing hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from hydrothermal fluid obtained from Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc. The isolate, TS1(T), is an irregular coccus, usually 0.5-2 microm in diameter and motile with a polar tuft of flagella. Cells in the exponential phase of growth fused at room temperature in the presence of DNA-intercalating dye to(More)