Toshihiro Ito

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Highly virulent avian influenza viruses can arise from avirulent strains maintained in poultry, but evidence to support their generation from viruses in wild birds is lacking. The most likely mechanism for the acquisition of virulence by benign avian viruses is the introduction of mutations by error-prone RNA polymerase, followed by the selection of(More)
Chemokines are key mediators of leukocyte recruitment during pathogenic insult and also play a prominent role in homeostasis. While most chemokine receptors bind to multiple chemokines, CCR6 is unique in that this receptor is one of only a few that can bind only a single chemokine ligand, CCL20. CCR6 is an important receptor that is involved in regulating(More)
MCP-1/CCL2 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of cancer. Since tumor cells produce MCP-1, they are considered to be the main source of this chemokine. Here, we examined whether MCP-1 produced by non-tumor cells affects the growth and lung metastasis of 4T1 breast cancer cells by transplanting them into the mammary pad of WT or(More)
Influenza A viral infections have been identified as the etiologic agents for historic pandemics, and contribute to the annual mortality associated with acute viral pneumonia. While both innate and acquired immunity are important in combating influenza virus infection, the mechanism connecting these arms of the immune system remains unknown. Recent data(More)
Newcastle Disease (ND) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of poultry. At present, limited molecular epidemiological data are available regarding the causes of ND outbreaks in vaccinated commercial poultry farms. Knowing the genomic characteristics of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infecting commercial poultry operations in spite of(More)
Relatively little is known about the distribution of avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) among wild birds in Japan. Surveillance of APMV in migratory waterfowl was conducted in the San-in region of western Japan during winters of 2006 to 2012. A total of 16 avian paramyxoviruses consisting of 3 lentogenic Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs), 12 APMV-4 and 1 APMV-8(More)
RATIONALE Accumulating evidence supports the hypothesis that the continuous host response to a persistent challenge can polarize the cytokine environment toward a Th2 cytokine phenotype, but the mechanisms responsible for this skewing are not clear. OBJECTIVES We investigated the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in a Th2-driven pulmonary granulomatous(More)
FIZZ (found in inflammatory zone) 1, a member of a cysteine-rich secreted protein family, is highly induced in lung allergic inflammation and bleomycin induced lung fibrosis, and primarily expressed by airway and type II alveolar epithelial cells. This novel mediator is known to stimulate α-smooth muscle actin and collagen expression in lung fibroblasts.(More)
The complete genome sequences of three strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from vaccinated commercial layer flocks in Japan in the span of three decades were characterized. All strains had genome lengths of 15,192 nucleotides consisting of six genes in the order of 3′-NP–P/V/W–M–F–HN–L-5′. The general genomic characteristics of the Japanese(More)
An avian paramyxovirus (APMV) isolated from goose feces (APMV/Shimane67) was biologically, serologically and genetically characterized. APMV/Shimane67 showed typical paramyxovirus morphology on electron microscopy. On hemagglutination inhibition test, antiserum against APMV/Shimane67 revealed low reactivity with other APMV serotypes and vice versa. The(More)