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Naturally arising CD25+CD4+ regulatory T cells (T(R) cells) are engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and immune homeostasis by suppressing aberrant or excessive immune responses, such as autoimmune disease and allergy. T(R) cells specifically express the transcription factor Foxp3, a key regulator of T(R)-cell development and function.(More)
Naturally arising regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor FoxP3, which critically controls the development and function of Treg cells. FoxP3 interacts with another transcription factor Runx1 (also known as AML1). Here, we showed that Treg cell-specific deficiency of Cbfbeta, a cofactor for all Runx proteins, or that of Runx1, but not(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying the development of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) have not been well defined. We report here that the genomic region of the PHLDA3 gene undergoes loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at a remarkably high frequency in human PanNETs, and this genetic change is correlated with disease progression and poor prognosis. We(More)
We have previously detected a single base substitution of G by A at the Arg codon CGC in exon 4 of the mutant lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene, an unstable LDH-B variant (case 1). Here, we use the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify genomic DNA of two cases (the original case 1 and a new patient, case 2). We were able to confirm that case 1 is(More)
In extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma, chromosomal translocation creates a gene fusion between EWS and the orphan nuclear receptor NOR1. The resulting fusion gene product, EWS/NOR1, has been believed to lead to malignant transformation by functioning as a transcriptional activator, but an alternative mechanism may also be involved. Here, using a newly(More)
The goal of the present study was to make our medical practice evidence-based for patients with parathyroid carcinoma. We posed six clinical questions relevant to the management of parathyroid cancer. A comprehensive search and critical appraisal of the literature was then carried out. Most of the literature retrieved was retrospective in design and(More)
Evidence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is found in approximately 2.7% of patients with pituitary adenomas. The multicentricity of pituitary adenomas has not yet been proved. Prolactinomas are most frequent in MEN1 pituitary tumors. Pituitary tumors with MEN1 are larger in size and more aggressive than without MEN1. Heterozygous germline(More)
To date about 20 activating mutations in the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) gene have been identified to cause autosomal dominant hypocalcemia (ADH) or sporadic hypoparathyroidism. We report a novel activating mutation in the CaR gene in a Japanese family with ADH. The proband, a 15-yr-old boy, and 5 other patients in 3 generations were asymptomatic, except(More)
MEN1, the gene responsible for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, is a tumor suppressor gene that encodes a protein called menin, of unknown function with no homology to any known protein. Here we demonstrate that menin interacts with a putative tumor metastasis suppressor nm23H1/nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) kinase A in mammalian cells. Given the roles of(More)