Toshihiko Okumura

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The dorsal lingual surfaces of the raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica) were examined by scanning electron microscopical (SEM) observations. The distribution and type of the lingual papillae found in the raccoon dog were similar to those in the fox. Filiform, fungiform, foliate and vallate papillae were observed. The(More)
The dorsal lingual surfaces of two adult Japanese marten (Martes melampus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Filiform, fungiform, vallate and foliate papillae were observed. A small filiform papilla on the apical surface of the tongue had several pointed processes. A small filiform papilla contained the connective tissue core consisting(More)
The dorsal lingual surfaces of adult Japanese pygmy woodpecker (Dendrocopos kizuki) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The tip of the tongue become sharp and the shape of the tongue showed spear-like structure. In both lateral sides of anterior lingual apex, some conical processes were observed. The epithelium of the surface of the anterior(More)
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult jaguar (Panthera onca) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the jaguar was about 17 cm long, and the center of the lingual apex became hollow. There were 7 vallate papillae in total. The filiform papilla on the lingual apex consisted of a larger main papilla and some secondary papillae. The(More)
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult Patagonian cavy (Dolichotis patagonum) by scanning electron microscopy. The tongue of the Patagonian cavy is about 8 cm long and the lingual body had lingual prominence on the posterior third. There were no fungiform papillae in the lingual dorsal surface. The fungiform papillae were observed in both(More)
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus) by scanning electron microscopy. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae consisted of a larger main papilla and smaller secondary papillae. A top of the connective tissue core of the filiform papilla showed several depressions. The(More)
The dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) and common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The length of the tongue in the peregrine falcon was about 2.5 cm. The length of the tongue in the common kestrel was about 1.5 cm. The tips of the tongues of the peregrine falcon and common(More)
We examined the dorsal lingual surfaces of an adult sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei) by scanning electron microscopy. Filiform, fungiform and vallate papillae were observed. The filiform papillae consisted of a larger main papilla and smaller secondary papillae. The filiform papilla contained connective tissue core consisting of several processes. The(More)
We examined the dorsal lingual surface of an adult fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) by scanning electron microscopy. The filiform papillae on the lingual apex had several pointed processes. The connective tissue core of the filiform papillae resembleda a well in shape. The filiform papillae on the anterior part of the lingual body were large and(More)
The dorsal lingual surfaces of rainbow lorikeet (Trichoglossus haematodus) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Macroscopically, the tongue of the rainbow lorikeet has a finger-like shape. Three parts are distinguished in the dorsal surface of the tongue: the apex, body, and root of the tongue. The apex of the tongue has numerous processes(More)