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BACKGROUND & AIMS TWEAK, a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, promotes intestinal epithelial cell injury and signals through the receptor Fn14 following irradiation-induced tissue damage and during development of colitis in mice. Interleukin (IL)-13, an effector of tissue damage in similar models, has been associated with the(More)
Oral food intake influences the morphology and function of intestinal epithelial cells and maintains gastrointestinal cell turnover. However, how exactly these processes are regulated, particularly in the large intestine, remains unclear. Here we identify microbiota-derived lactate as a major factor inducing enterocyte hyperproliferation in starvation-refed(More)
OBJECTIVE The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus has been shown to be safe and effective as salvage therapy for steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis (UC). Since differences in the onset of action between various agents are thought to influence the achievement and maintenance of disease remission, top-down or accelerated step-up therapy with tacrolimus may be(More)
AIM To assess adalimumab's efficacy with concomitant azathioprine (AZA) for induction and maintenance of clinical remission in Japanese Crohn's disease (CD) patients. METHODS This retrospective, observational, single-center study enrolled 28 consecutive CD patients treated with adalimumab (ADA). Mean age and mean disease duration were 38.1 ± 11.8 years(More)
The gut incretin glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the intestinotropic hormone GLP-2 are released from enteroendocrine L cells in response to ingested nutrients. Treatment with an exogenous GLP-2 analogue increases intestinal villous mass and prevents intestinal injury. Since GLP-2 is rapidly degraded by dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), DPP4 inhibition may(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Luminal nutrients stimulate enteroendocrine L cells to release gut hormones, including intestinotrophic glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2). Because L cells express the bile acid receptor TGR5 and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) rapidly degrades GLPs, we hypothesized that luminal TGR5 activation may attenuate intestinal injury via GLP-2(More)
BACKGROUND Intestinal deformity and stenosis are induced by fibrosis during the process healing of intestinal chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Potent anti-inflammatory treatment of patients with Crohn's disease (CD) may induce fibrous stenosis, and this is often difficult to treat in clinical practice. Therefore, it is necessary to(More)
In an earlier paper, we reported that novel prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) receptor antagonists having the bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane ring system as a prostaglandin skeleton were a potent new class of antiallergic agents and suppressed various allergic inflammatory responses such as those observed in conjunctivitis and asthma models. In the present study, we(More)
Chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 8 (CCR8), the chemokine receptor for chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1 (CCL1), is expressed in T-helper type-2 lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages (PMφ) and is involved in various pathological conditions, including peritoneal adhesions. However, the role of CCR8 in inflammatory responses is not fully elucidated. To investigate(More)
Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP; FABP4), which is predominantly expressed in macrophages and adipose tissue, regulates fatty acid storage and lipolysis, and is also an important mediator of inflammation. Here, we report a synthesis of (14)C-labeled 2-[2'-(5-ethyl-3,4-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)biphenyl-3-yloxy]acetic acid (BMS309403), a potent(More)