Toshihiko Murayama

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A partial 5'-region cDNA (11.5 kb) of chicken breast muscle connectin/titin encoding 3752 amino acids was sequenced. The predicted amino acid sequence contains 31 immunoglobulin C2 motifs and 10 interdomains. The sequence suggests a skeletal muscle type of connectin isoforms. Immunoelectron microscopic studies using antisera raised against several products(More)
Cytosolic phospholipase A2alpha (cPLA2alpha) preferentially hydrolyzes phospholipids containing arachidonic acid and plays a key role in the biosynthesis of eicosanoids. This review discusses the essential features of cPLA2alpha regulation and addresses new insights into the functional properties of this enzyme. Full activation of the enzyme requires Ca2+(More)
Mitragynine (1) is a major alkaloidal component in the Thai traditional medicinal herb, Mitragyna speciosa, and has been proven to exhibit analgesic activity mediated by opioid receptors. By utilizing this natural product as a lead compound, synthesis of some derivatives, evaluations of the structure-activity relationship, and surveys of the intrinsic(More)
Sphingolipid metabolites such as sphingosine regulate cell functions including cell death and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism. D-erythro-C18-Sphingosine-1-phosphate (D-e-S1P), a sphingolipid metabolite, acts as an intracellular messenger in addition to being an endogenous ligand of some cell surface receptors. The development of S1P analogs may be useful(More)
Flavonoids have been reported to be potent antioxidants and beneficial in oxidative stress related diseases. Quercetin, a major flavonoid in food, deserves much attention because of its antioxidative activity. However, the actions of flavonoids including quercetin are complex and paradoxical. Quercetin caused apoptosis and/or cell death in various cells(More)
Garlic extract, the ethanol-soluble fraction of garlic, prevented formation of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances and fluorescent substances during lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes. Lipid peroxidation increased the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene labelled to the microsomes while this increase was prevented by the(More)
Urotensin II and its receptor are expressed in the gastrointestinal tract of mice, but the effects of urotensin II on the gastrointestinal functions have not been established. In the present study, we investigated the effects of human urotensin II on a segment of the guinea-pig ileum. The addition of urotensin II induced contraction of the ileum in(More)
Recently, we found that mitragynine, a major constituent of Mitragyna speciosa, has an opioid agonistic activity, but its weak potency could not explain the opium-like effect of this plant. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extract of the leaves of M. speciosa was carried out to search for potent opioid agonists other than(More)
7-Hydroxymitragynine is a potent opioid analgesic alkaloid isolated from the Thai medicinal herb Mitragyna speciosa. In the present study, we investigated the opioid receptor subtype responsible for the analgesic effect of this compound. In addition, we tested whether development of tolerance, cross-tolerance to morphine and naloxone-induced withdrawal(More)
7-hydroxymitragynine, a constituent of the Thai herbal medicine Mitragyna speciosa, has been found to have a potent opioid antinociceptive effect. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of antinociception and the inhibitory effect on gastrointestinal transit of 7-hydroxymitragynine, and compared its effects with those of morphine. When(More)