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To characterize ammonium transport pathways in rice, two cDNAs with high homology to MEP/AMT2-type ammonium transporters, OsAMT2;1 and OsAMT3;1, were isolated. Expression of OsAMT2;1 in an ammonium-uptake-defective yeast mutant showed that this gene encodes functional ammonium transporters. OsAMT2;1 was constitutively expressed in both roots and shoots(More)
The mRNA and protein for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC 1.4.1.14) in root tips of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Sasanishiki) plants increases dramatically within 12 h of supplying a␣low concentration (>0.05 mM) of ammonium ions (T.␣Yamaya et al., 1995, Plant Cell Physiol 36: 1197–1204). To identify the specific cells which are responsible for(More)
Rice plants grown in anaerobic paddy soil prefer to use ammonium ion as an inorganic nitrogen source for their growth. The ammonium ions are assimilated by the coupled reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In rice, there is a small gene family for GOGAT: there are two NADH-dependent types and one ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent(More)
Cellular localization of cytosolic glutamine synthetase (GS1; EC 6.3.1.2) in vascular bundles of leaf blades of rice (Oryza sativa L.), at the stage at which leaf blades 6 (the lowest position) to 10 were fully expanded, was investigated immunocytologically with an affinity-purified anti-GS1 immunoglobulin G. Strong signals for GS1 protein were detected in(More)
Thylakoid-bound superoxide dismutase (SOD; EC 1.15.1.1) was solubilized by Triton X-100 from spinach and purified to a homogeneous state. The molecular weight of thylakoid-bound SOD was 52000; the enzyme was composed of two equal subunits. Its activity was not sensitive to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide, and the isolated SOD contained Mn, but neither Fe nor(More)
In rice roots, transient and cell-type-specific accumulation of both mRNA and protein for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) occurs after the supply of NH(4) (+) ions. In order to better understand the origin of 2-oxoglutarate for this reaction, we focused on mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase(More)
PII protein in bacteria is a sensor for 2-oxoglutarate and a transmitter for glutamine signaling. We identified an OsGlnB gene that encoded a bacterial PII-like protein in rice. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that an OsGlnB gene product interacted with N-acetylglutamate kinase 1 (OsNAGK1) and PII-like protein (OsGlnB) itself in rice. In cyanobacteria,(More)
The effects of (+)-8′,8′,8′-trifluoroabscisic acid (trifluoro-ABA) on α-amylase expression were studied in rice embryoless half-seeds, scutella, and suspension-cultured cells derived from the embryo, and the effects of the analog on sugar accumulation were also studied in scutella and suspension-cultured cells. Treatment with (+)-trifluoro-ABA strongly(More)
Among three genes for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (OsGS1;1, OsGS1;2 and OsGS1;3) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants, the OsGS1;2 gene is known to be mainly expressed in surface cells of roots, but its function was not clearly understood. We characterized knock-out mutants caused by the insertion of an endogenous retrotransposon Tos17 into exon 2 of(More)
 In order to improve a virus-independent gene expression system in insect cells, the effect of the repetition of the promoter sequence of a baculovirus immediate early gene, BmNPV ie1, on the gene expression activity was examined. Tandem repetition of ie1 promoter resulted in about a 4-fold increase of the reporter gene expression activity. Primer extension(More)