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To characterize ammonium transport pathways in rice, two cDNAs with high homology to MEP/AMT2-type ammonium transporters, OsAMT2;1 and OsAMT3;1, were isolated. Expression of OsAMT2;1 in an ammonium-uptake-defective yeast mutant showed that this gene encodes functional ammonium transporters. OsAMT2;1 was constitutively expressed in both roots and shoots(More)
Rice plants grown in anaerobic paddy soil prefer to use ammonium ion as an inorganic nitrogen source for their growth. The ammonium ions are assimilated by the coupled reaction of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In rice, there is a small gene family for GOGAT: there are two NADH-dependent types and one ferredoxin (Fd)-dependent(More)
PII protein in bacteria is a sensor for 2-oxoglutarate and a transmitter for glutamine signaling. We identified an OsGlnB gene that encoded a bacterial PII-like protein in rice. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that an OsGlnB gene product interacted with N-acetylglutamate kinase 1 (OsNAGK1) and PII-like protein (OsGlnB) itself in rice. In cyanobacteria,(More)
Plant roots under nitrogen deficient conditions with access to both ammonium and nitrate ions, will take up ammonium first. This preference for ammonium rather than nitrate emphasizes the importance of ammonium assimilation machinery in roots. Glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT) catalyze the conversion of ammonium and 2-oxoglutarate to(More)
Inorganic ammonium ions are assimilated by a coupled reaction of glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). In rice, three genes encoding either ferredoxin (Fd)-GOGAT, NADH-GOGAT1, or NADH-GOGAT2, have been identified. OsNADH-GOGAT2, a newly identified gene, was expressed mainly in fully expanded leaf blades and leaf sheaths. Although the distinct(More)
Sieve tubes are comprised of sieve elements, enucleated cells that are incapable of RNA and protein synthesis. The proteins in sieve elements are supplied from the neighboring companion cells through plasmodesmata. In rice plants, it was unclear whether or not all proteins produced in companion cells had the same distribution pattern in the sieve(More)
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants with substantially increased Rubisco content were obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with the rice rbcS sense gene under the control of the rice rbcS promoter. The primary transformants were screened for the ratio of Rubisco to leaf-N content, and the transformants with >120% wild-type levels of Rubisco were(More)
Immunocytological studies in this laboratory have suggested that NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT; EC in developing organs of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Sasanishiki) is involved in the utilization of glutamine remobilized from senescing organs through the phloem. Because most of the indica cultivars contained less NADH-GOGAT in their(More)
In rice roots, transient and cell-type-specific accumulation of both mRNA and protein for NADH-dependent glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT) occurs after the supply of NH(4) (+) ions. In order to better understand the origin of 2-oxoglutarate for this reaction, we focused on mitochondrial NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase(More)
Among three genes for cytosolic glutamine synthetase (OsGS1;1, OsGS1;2 and OsGS1;3) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants, the OsGS1;2 gene is known to be mainly expressed in surface cells of roots, but its function was not clearly understood. We characterized knock-out mutants caused by the insertion of an endogenous retrotransposon Tos17 into exon 2 of(More)