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During photosynthesis, plants must control the utilization of light energy in order to avoid photoinhibition. We isolated an Arabidopsis mutant, pgr5 (proton gradient regulation), in which downregulation of photosystem II photochemistry in response to intense light was impaired. PGR5 encodes a novel thylakoid membrane protein that is involved in the(More)
Photosynthesis provides at least two routes through which light energy can be used to generate a proton gradient across the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts, which is subsequently used to synthesize ATP. In the first route, electrons released from water in photosystem II (PSII) are eventually transferred to NADP+ by way of photosystem I (PSI). This linear(More)
Major copper proteins in the cytoplasm of plant cells are plastocyanin, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase, and cytochrome c oxidase. Under copper limited conditions, expression of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase is down-regulated and the protein is replaced by iron superoxide dismutase in chloroplasts. We present evidence that a micro-RNA, miR398, mediates(More)
Expression of miR398 is induced in response to copper deficiency and is involved in the degradation of mRNAs encoding copper/zinc superoxide dismutase in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that SPL7 (for SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein-like7) is essential for this response of miR398. SPL7 is homologous to Copper response regulator1, the transcription factor(More)
Type I chaperonins are large, double-ring complexes present in bacteria (GroEL), mitochondria (Hsp60), and chloroplasts (Cpn60), which are involved in mediating the folding of newly synthesized, translocated, or stress-denatured proteins. In Escherichia coli, GroEL comprises 14 identical subunits and has been exquisitely optimized to fold its broad range of(More)
Copper delivery to the thylakoid lumen protein plastocyanin and the stromal enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in chloroplasts is required for photosynthesis and oxidative stress protection. The copper delivery system in chloroplasts was characterized by analyzing the function of copper transporter genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Two mutant alleles were(More)
Copper (Cu) is an essential trace element with important roles as a cofactor in many plant functions, including photosynthesis. However, free Cu ions can cause toxicity, necessitating precise Cu delivery systems. Relatively little is known about Cu transport in plant cells, and no components of the Cu transport machinery in chloroplasts have been identified(More)
We previously reported Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha using the hygromycin phosphotransferase gene as a marker for selection with hygromycin. In this study, we developed three additional markers for M. polymorpha transformation: the gentamicin 3'-acetyltransferase gene for selection with gentamicin; a(More)
RNA editing is a process of RNA maturation involved in the insertion, deletion or modification of nucleotides. In organellar transcripts of higher plants, specific cytidine residues are converted into uridine residues. In many cases, editing results in the restoration of conserved amino acid residues, a process that is essential for protein function in(More)
Antimycin A-sensitive cyclic electron flow (AA-sensitive CEF) was discovered by Arnon and co-workers more than 50 years ago and serves to recycle electrons from ferredoxin (Fd) to plastoquinone (PQ). A role in AA-sensitive CEF has been attributed to the two thylakoid proteins PGR5 and PGRL1 ever since their identification, but this assignment remains(More)