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APOE is an established susceptibility gene for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Recent genome-wide association studies have identified many additional susceptibility genes for LOAD in populations of European descent. However, there is little information on whether or not genetic variants in these genes are associated with other ethnicities. To(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Improved glucose control in type 2 diabetes is known to reduce the risk of microvascular events. There is, however, continuing uncertainty about its impact on macrovascular disease. The aim of these analyses was to generate more precise estimates of the effects of more-intensive, compared with less-intensive, glucose control on the risk of(More)
BACKGROUND End-stage kidney disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prevalence of the disease and worldwide use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) are expected to rise sharply in the next decade. We aimed to quantify estimates of this burden. METHODS We systematically searched Medline for observational studies and renal(More)
OBJECTIVE There is no consensus on the importance of visit-to-visit glycemic variability in diabetes. Therefore, we assessed the effects of visit-to-visit variability (VVV) in HbA1c and fasting glucose on major outcomes in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron MR Controlled Evaluation) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND(More)
BACKGROUND Intravenous sodium bicarbonate has been proposed to reduce the risk for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). PURPOSE To determine the effect of sodium bicarbonate on the risk for CIN. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1950 to December 2008; conference proceedings; and(More)
The results of prospective studies that have examined the association between serum cholesterol levels and the incidence of gastric cancer remain controversial. To examine this issue in a general population, a total of 2,604 subjects aged 40 years or older were followed up prospectively for 14 years. During the follow-up period, gastric cancer developed in(More)
BACKGROUND Severe hypoglycemia may increase the risk of a poor outcome in patients with type 2 diabetes assigned to an intensive glucose-lowering intervention. We analyzed data from a large study of intensive glucose lowering to explore the relationship between severe hypoglycemia and adverse clinical outcomes. METHODS We examined the associations between(More)
BACKGROUND Recent hypertension guidelines have reversed previous recommendations for lower blood pressure targets in high-risk patients, such as those with cardiovascular disease, renal disease, or diabetes. This change represents uncertainty about whether more intensive blood pressure-lowering strategies are associated with greater reductions in risk of(More)
There are limited data regarding whether albuminuria and reduced estimated GFR (eGFR) are separate and independent risk factors for cardiovascular and renal events among individuals with type 2 diabetes. The Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and diamicroN-MR Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) study examined the effects of routine BP lowering on(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic kidney disease has been shown to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease in high-risk populations. However, this relationship is inconclusive in community-based populations. METHODS To clarify this issue, we followed 2634 community-dwelling individuals without cardiovascular disease, aged 40 years or older, for 12 years(More)