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The arterial anatomy of the temporal region was examined macroscopically and radiographically in 10 fresh cadavers which had been injected with lead oxide. The blood supply of the temporal region is derived from the superficial temporal, middle temporal, deep temporal, posterior auricular, transverse facial, zygomatico-orbital, zygomaticotemporal,(More)
The arterial anatomy of the accompanying arteries of the cutaneous veins and cutaneous nerves in the extremities was investigated in 10 fresh cadavers that had been injected with a lead oxide-gelatin mixture throughout the entire body. It is well known that cutaneous nerves have neurocutaneous perforators, but it was found that cutaneous veins also have(More)
The subcutaneous adipofascial tissue over the entire body was radiographically and macroscopically investigated in 20 fresh and embalmed cadavers. The subcutaneous adipofascial tissue was made up of two adipofascial layers. Because the superficial layer forms a solid structure and is thought to protect against external forces, the adipofascial system formed(More)
A number of experiments were conducted to study the anatomic changes in a flap following a surgical delay using the Doppler probe to add precision to the technique. After scanning the integument of a series of anesthetized animals with the probe, each was sacrificed; a total-body arterial injection was performed with a lead oxide mixture, the integument and(More)
BACKGROUND In planning gender-reassignment surgery for biological women and treating men with gynecomastia, surgeons must have a thorough understanding of anatomically correct nipple positions and appropriate areola sizes in men. OBJECTIVES The authors sought to determine whether body height or body mass index (BMI) affects nipple position or areola size(More)
The arteries adjacent to the lesser saphenous vein and sural nerve were investigated in 10 fresh cadavers that had been systemically injected with a lead oxide-gelatin mixture. The accompanying arteries were found to lie along the lesser saphenous vein and sural nerve and to nourish the skin through venocutaneous and neurocutaneous perforators. On the basis(More)
Veins in the paraumbilical region were investigated in eight fresh cadavers, in which radiopaque materials were injected into both the arterial and the venous systems, to determine their locational relationship to the arteries. Veins in the skin and subcutaneous tissue consisted of venae comitantes and non-venae comitantes. The main trunk of the non-venae(More)
Anatomy of the superficial temporal artery and vein was analyzed with arteriograms, venograms, and arteriovenograms of fresh cadavers that had been injected with contrast medium. The superficial temporal artery always divided into two major branches: the frontal and parietal branches. However, the superficial temporal vein divided into one, two, or three(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the vascular anatomy of the pectoral region of the rat to develop a free pectoral skin flap model. In Experiment 1 (n = 6), we performed anatomic dissection and angiographic study of the pectoral region. In Experiment 2 (n = 20), we performed microsurgical free transfer of a pectoral skin flap to the cervical or(More)
A significant clinical problem in reconstructive surgery is partial loss of a pedicled flap. To resolve this problem, various methods of vascular augmentation have been developed; "supercharging" is one of those techniques. A new rat flap model was developed for investigation of the supercharging procedure, and the efficacy of the arterial supercharging(More)