Toshifumi Nakamura

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Supplement of 1% lithocholic acid (LCA) in the diet for 5-9 days resulted in elevated levels of the marker for liver damage aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities in both farnesoid X receptor (FXR)-null and wild-type female mice. The levels were clearly higher in wild-type mice than in FXR-null mice, despite the diminished expression(More)
The novel gastroprokinetic agent acotiamide improves gastric motility by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity in stomach; however, the mechanism of distribution of acotiamide from blood to stomach has not been clarified. Here, the tissue distribution of acotiamide was investigated in rats. The tissue-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,app,in vivo)) for(More)
Evidence for increased oxidant stress has been reported in human atherosclerosis. However, no information is available about the importance of in situ oxidant stress in relation to plaque stability. This information is relevant because the morbidity and mortality of atherosclerosis are essentially the consequences of acute ischemic syndromes due to unstable(More)
Electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) were used to analyze epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and monohydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs) isolated from human red blood cell membranes following base hydrolysis. ESI results in the formation of an abundant isobaric carboxylate anion at m/z 319 for both of these oxidized metabolites(More)
During apoptosis, phosphatidylserine (PS) is moved from the plasma membrane inner leaflet to the outer leaflet where it triggers recognition and phagocytosis of the apoptotic cell. Although the mechanisms of PS appearance during apoptosis are not well understood, it is thought that declining activity of the aminophospholipid translocase and(More)
Mice lacking the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) involved in the maintenance of hepatic bile acid levels are highly sensitive to cholic acid-induced liver toxicity. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity was elevated 15.7-fold after feeding a 0.25% cholic acid diet, whereas only slight increases in serum AST (1.7- and 2.5-fold) were observed in(More)
Isolation and characterization of murine pulmonary phospholipids revealed the normal occurrence of 10 isobaric eicosanoids corresponding to the incorporation of one oxygen atom into the arachidonate esterified to glycerophospholipids. Lungs from mice were removed and lipids were extracted and then separated into free carboxylic acid and phospholipids.(More)
Asacol, a medication that delivers delayed release 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), is a useful therapeutic agent for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the relationship between its pharmacological actions and intestinal concentrations has not been studied in detail. Therefore, our aim was to assess 5-ASA's pharmacological actions as a function of its(More)
Peroxidation of glycerophospholipids present in cellular membranes results in the formation of a complex mixture, with many products derived from the oxidation of esterified arachidonic acid. Techniques of chromatography and mass spectrometry have facilitated the elucidation of the structure of individual components present as intact glycerophospholipids as(More)