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More than two decades have passed since genetically modified HIV was used for gene delivery. Through continuous improvements these early marker gene-carrying HIVs have evolved into safer and more effective lentiviral vectors. Lentiviral vectors offer several attractive properties as gene-delivery vehicles, including: (i) sustained gene delivery through(More)
The main objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g., members of the serogroups O26, O91, O103, O111, O118, O145, and O166) have caused major outbreaks and sporadic cases of human illnesses that have ranged from(More)
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous(More)
Recently, tetherin has been identified as an effective cellular factor that prevents the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Here, we show that the production of virus-like particles induced by viral matrix proteins of Lassa virus or Marburg virus was markedly inhibited by tetherin and that N-linked glycosylation of tetherin was dispensable for(More)
Nuclear reprogramming of somatic tissue enables derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from an autologous, non-embryonic origin. The purpose of this study was to establish efficient protocols for lineage specification of human iPS cells into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-producing progeny. We generated human iPS cells, which were then(More)
Nuclear reprogramming enables patient-specific derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult tissue. Yet, iPS generation from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been demonstrated. Here, we report reproducible iPS derivation of epidermal keratinocytes (HK) from elderly T2D patients. Transduced with human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC(More)
Tetherin (also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24) has recently been reported to inhibit a wide range of viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of action of tetherin has not been determined. Both ends of the tetherin molecule are associated with the plasma membrane and it forms a homodimer. Therefore, a model in which progeny virions are retained on the cell(More)
INTRODUCTION The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, thereby providing a novel cell-therapy platform for severe degenerative diseases. One of the key issues for clinical-grade iPSC derivation is the accessibility of donor cells used for reprogramming. METHODS We examined the(More)
Nuclear reprogramming of adult somatic tissue enables embryo-independent generation of autologous, patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Exploiting this emergent regenerative platform for individualized medicine applications requires the establishment of bioequivalence criteria across derived pluripotent lines and lineage-specified(More)
BACKGROUND B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), a key cardiac hormone in cardiorenal homeostasis, is produced as a 108 amino acid prohormone, proBNP1-108, which is converted to a biologically active peptide BNP1-32 and an inactive N-terminal (NT)-proBNP1-76. The widely accepted model is that the normal heart releases a proteolytically processed BNP1-32 and(More)