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More than two decades have passed since genetically modified HIV was used for gene delivery. Through continuous improvements these early marker gene-carrying HIVs have evolved into safer and more effective lentiviral vectors. Lentiviral vectors offer several attractive properties as gene-delivery vehicles, including: (i) sustained gene delivery through(More)
The large number of cases of human illness caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) worldwide has raised safety concerns for foods of bovine origin. These human illnesses include diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, hemolytic uremic syndrome, and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Severe cases end with chronic renal failure, chronic nervous(More)
The main objective of this review was to assess the role of dairy cattle and their products in human infections with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC). A large number of STEC strains (e.g., members of the serogroups O26, O91, O103, O111, O118, O145, and O166) have caused major outbreaks and sporadic cases of human illnesses that have ranged from(More)
Recently, tetherin has been identified as an effective cellular factor that prevents the release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Here, we show that the production of virus-like particles induced by viral matrix proteins of Lassa virus or Marburg virus was markedly inhibited by tetherin and that N-linked glycosylation of tetherin was dispensable for(More)
Nuclear reprogramming of somatic tissue enables derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from an autologous, non-embryonic origin. The purpose of this study was to establish efficient protocols for lineage specification of human iPS cells into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-producing progeny. We generated human iPS cells, which were then(More)
From a series of phosphonylmethoxyalkylpurine and -pyrimidine derivatives, (S)-1-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)cytosine [(S)-HPMPC] emerged as a particularly potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of human cytomegalovirus (CMV). Its potency against CMV was similar to that of the structurally related adenine derivative (S)-HPMPA but higher(More)
Nuclear reprogramming enables patient-specific derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult tissue. Yet, iPS generation from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been demonstrated. Here, we report reproducible iPS derivation of epidermal keratinocytes (HK) from elderly T2D patients. Transduced with human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC(More)
Tetherin (also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24) has recently been reported to inhibit a wide range of viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of action of tetherin has not been determined. Both ends of the tetherin molecule are associated with the plasma membrane and it forms a homodimer. Therefore, a model in which progeny virions are retained on the cell(More)
A new compound has been found, (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonylmethoxypropyl)adenine ((S)-HPMPA), that has potent and selective activity against a broad spectrum of DNA viruses, including herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2); varicella zoster virus; thymidine kinase-deficient (TK-) mutants of herpes simplex and varicella zoster virus; human cytomegalovirus;(More)
The acyclic nucleotide analogue (S)-9-(3-hydroxy-2-phosphonyl-methoxypropyl)-adenine [(S)-HPMPA], which contains a phosphonate-substituted aliphatic chain, is a potent and selective inhibitor of the replication of various DNA viruses, including herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We have synthesized radiolabeled (S)-[U-14C-adenine]HPMPA and investigated(More)