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BACKGROUND Xenotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV)-related virus (XMRV) was initially identified in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue, particularly in the prostatic stromal fibroblasts, of patients homozygous for the RNASEL R462Q mutation. A subsequent study reported XMRV antigens in malignant prostatic epithelium and association of XMRV infection with PCa,(More)
Tetherin (also known as BST2, CD317 or HM1.24) has recently been reported to inhibit a wide range of viruses. However, the antiviral mechanism of action of tetherin has not been determined. Both ends of the tetherin molecule are associated with the plasma membrane and it forms a homodimer. Therefore, a model in which progeny virions are retained on the cell(More)
Nuclear reprogramming enables patient-specific derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from adult tissue. Yet, iPS generation from patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) has not been demonstrated. Here, we report reproducible iPS derivation of epidermal keratinocytes (HK) from elderly T2D patients. Transduced with human OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC(More)
BACKGROUND Rhesus monkey TRIM5α (TRIM5αrh) recognizes the incoming HIV-1 core through its C-terminal B30.2(PRYSPRY) domain and promotes its premature disassembly or degradation before reverse transcription. Previously, we have shown that TRIM5αrh blocks HIV-1 production through the N-terminal RBCC domain by the recognition of Gag polyproteins. Although all(More)
Nuclear reprogramming of somatic tissue enables derivation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from an autologous, non-embryonic origin. The purpose of this study was to establish efficient protocols for lineage specification of human iPS cells into functional glucose-responsive, insulin-producing progeny. We generated human iPS cells, which were then(More)
INTRODUCTION The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, thereby providing a novel cell-therapy platform for severe degenerative diseases. One of the key issues for clinical-grade iPSC derivation is the accessibility of donor cells used for reprogramming. METHODS We examined the(More)
INTRODUCTION End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a major public health problem. Although kidney transplantation is a viable therapeutic option, this therapy is associated with significant limitations, including a shortage of donor organs. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology, which allows derivation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, could(More)
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV) have evolved to exploit the dynamic reorganization of host cell machinery during co-infection by adenoviruses and other helper viruses. In the absence of helper viruses, host factors such as the proteasome and DNA damage response machinery have been shown to effectively inhibit AAV transduction by restricting processes ranging(More)
Streptozotocin (STZ), a glucosamine-nitrosourea compound, has potent genotoxic effects on pancreatic β-cells and is frequently used to induce diabetes in experimental animals. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has β-cell protective effects and is known to preserve β-cells from STZ treatment. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms of STZ-induced diabetes(More)
Increasing evidence has indicated natural transspecies transmission of gammaretroviruses; however, viral-host interactions after initial xeno-exposure remain poorly understood. Potential association of xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) in patients with prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome has attracted broad interests in this(More)