Toshiaki Watanabe

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RNA interference (RNAi) is a mechanism by which double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) suppress specific transcripts in a sequence-dependent manner. dsRNAs are processed by Dicer to 21-24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and then incorporated into the argonaute (Ago) proteins. Gene regulation by endogenous siRNAs has been observed only in organisms(More)
Silencing of transposable elements occurs during fetal gametogenesis in males via de novo DNA methylation of their regulatory regions. The loss of MILI (miwi-like) and MIWI2 (mouse piwi 2), two mouse homologs of Drosophila Piwi, activates retrotransposon gene expression by impairing DNA methylation in the regulatory regions of the retrotransposons. However,(More)
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms in women and the third largest number in men. Many new treatment methods have been developed over the last few decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum (JSCCR) guidelines 2010 for the treatment of(More)
Double-stranded RNA induces RNA silencing and is cleaved into 21-24 nt small RNA duplexes by Dicer enzyme. A strand of Dicer-generated small RNA duplex (called the guide strand) is then selected by a thermodynamic mechanism to associate with Argonaute (AGO) protein. This AGO-small RNA complex functions to cleave mRNA, repress translation or modify chromatin(More)
Small RNAs ranging in size between 18 and 30 nucleotides (nt) are found in many organisms including yeasts, plants, and animals. Small RNAs are involved in the regulation of gene expression through translational repression, mRNA degradation, and chromatin modification. In mammals, microRNAs (miRNAs) are the only small RNAs that have been well characterized.(More)
Depth of submucosal invasion (SM depth) in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (SICC) is considered an important predictive factor for lymph node metastasis. However, no nationwide reports have clarified the relationship between SM depth and rate of lymph node metastasis. Our aim was to investigate the correlations between lymph node metastasis and SM(More)
Colorectal cancer is a major cause of death in Japan, where it accounts for the largest number of deaths from malignant neoplasms among women and the third largest number among men. Many new methods of treatment have been developed during recent decades. The Japanese Society for Cancer of the Colon and Rectum Guidelines 2014 for treatment of colorectal(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to clarify the incidence and risk factors for developing incisional surgical site infection (SSI) in both elective colon and rectal surgery. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA SSI is a frequent complication after elective colorectal resection. The National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance system surveys all colorectal(More)
PURPOSE Using multiple genetic markers, including cancer stem-like cells, we evaluated the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the peripheral blood (PB) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who had undergone curative surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS In(More)
Genomic imprinting causes parental origin-specific monoallelic gene expression through differential DNA methylation established in the parental germ line. However, the mechanisms underlying how specific sequences are selectively methylated are not fully understood. We have found that the components of the PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway are required(More)