Toshiaki Shimizu

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Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are activated by various metabolic stresses, including hypoxia. The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), the area with the highest expression of K(ATP) channels in the brain, plays a pivotal role in the control of seizures. Mutant mice lacking the Kir6.2 subunit of K(ATP) channels(More)
We identified a zebrafish homologue of Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1), which was previously identified in Xenopus as a Wnt inhibitor with potent head-inducing activity. Zebrafish dkk1 is expressed in the dorsal marginal blastoderm and also in the dorsal yolk syncytial layer after mid-blastula transition. At later blastula stages, the expression expands to the entire(More)
Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent chemoattractant that is primarily involved in inflammation, immune responses and host defence against infection. LTB4 activates inflammatory cells by binding to its cell-surface receptor (BLTR). LTB4 can also bind and activate the intranudear transcription factor PPAR alpha, resulting in the activation of genes that(More)
We have constructed a high resolution rice genetic map containing 1,383 DNA markers at an average interval of 300 kilobases (kb). The markers, distributed along 1,575 cM on 12 linkage groups, comprise 883 cDNAs, 265 genomic DNAs, 147 randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD) and 88 other DNAs. cDNAs were derived from rice root and callus, analysed by(More)
Radixin is a member of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family of proteins, which play a role in the formation of the membrane-associated cytoskeleton by linking actin filaments and adhesion proteins. This cross-linking activity is regulated by phosphoinositides such as phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) in the downstream of the small G protein Rho.(More)
A fundamental property of animal cells is the ability to regulate their own cell volume. Even under hypotonic stress imposed by either decreased extracellular or increased intracellular osmolarity, the cells can re-adjust their volume after transient osmotic swelling by a mechanism known as regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In most cell types, RVD is(More)
Several organic anions are excreted into the bile via a canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), which is hereditarily defective in mutant rats, such as the Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rat (EHBR) and TR- rat. In the present study, we cloned cMOAT from the Sprague-Dawley rat liver cDNA library based on the homology with human multidrug(More)
Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was originally purified from the rat stomach. Like the synthetic growth hormone secretagogues (GHSs), ghrelin specifically releases growth hormone (GH) after intravenous administration. Also consistent with the central actions of GHSs, ghrelin-immunoreactive cells were shown(More)
Annelids are strongly segmented animals that display a high degree of metamerism in their body plan. The embryonic origin of metameric segmentation was examined in an oligochaete annelid Tubifex using lineage tracers. Segmental organization arises sequentially in the anterior-to-posterior direction along the longitudinal axis of the mesodermal germ band, a(More)
As in other clitellate annelids, embryonic development in the oligochaete Tubifex is characterized by the generation of five bilateral pairs of teloblasts (designated M, N, O, P and Q), which serve as embryonic stem cells to produce germ bands on either side of the embryo. A large part of the tissues comprising body segments has been assigned to the(More)