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Studies on patients and large animal models suggest the importance of atrial fibrosis in the development of atrial fibrillation (AF). To investigate whether increased fibrosis is sufficient to produce a substrate for AF, we have studied cardiac electrophysiology (EP) and inducibility of atrial arrhythmias in MHC-TGFcys33ser transgenic mice (Tx), which have(More)
The role of cardiac ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels in ischemia-induced electrophysiological alterations has not been thoroughly established. Using mice with homozygous knockout (KO) of Kir6.2 (a pore-forming subunit of cardiac K(ATP) channel) gene, we investigated the potential contribution of K(ATP) channels to electrophysiological alterations and(More)
In order to elucidate the functional significance of excitatory spinal reflex arcs (facilitation) between musculus (M.) pronator teres (PT) and M. extensor carpi radialis (ECR, longus: ECRL, brevis: ECRB) in humans, activities of the muscles were studied with electromyography (EMG) and electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS). In EMG study, activities of(More)
Background—Adenosine can initiate ischemic preconditioning, and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP) channels have emerged as the likely effectors. We sought to determine the mechanistic interactions between these 2 observations. Methods and Results—The mitochondrial flavoprotein oxidation induced by diazoxide (100 ␮mol/L) was used to quantify(More)
The majority of embolisms associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) are from the left atrial appendage (LAA). To treat the existing thrombus, warfarin and novel anticoagulants have been used. However, there has been no clinical information regarding the difference of the effects of congealing the fibrinogenolysis system among these oral anticoagulants. Here,(More)
Motion and force produced by electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS) to each of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB), and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) with the prone (P), semiprone (SP), and supine forearm (S) were studied in ten normal human subjects. Abduction (AB), extension (E), adduction (AD), and flexion (F) directions were(More)
BACKGROUND There are no criteria for selecting single- or dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients without a pacing indication. Recent reports showed no benefit of the dual-chamber system despite its preference in the United States. As data on ICD selection and respective outcomes in Japanese patients are scarce, we(More)
Effects of low-threshold afferents from the flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS) to the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) motoneurons were examined using a post-stimulus time–histogram (PSTH) and electromyogram-averaging (EMG-A) methods in eight healthy human subjects. In the PSTH study in five of the eight subjects, electrical conditioning stimuli (ES) to the(More)
In order to elucidate strict actions of the human wrist flexors, motion and force produced by electrical neuromuscular stimulation (ENS) to each of musculus (m.) flexsor carpi radialis (FCR) and m. flexsor carpi ulnaris (FCU) with the prone, semiprone, and supine forearm were studied in ten healthy human subjects. Abduction, extension, adduction, and(More)