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Secretory proteins and extracellular glycans are transported to the extracellular space during cell growth. These materials are carried in secretory vesicles generated at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Analysis of the mammalian post-Golgi secretory pathway demonstrated the movement of separated secretory vesicles in the cell. Using secretory carrier(More)
Suspension-cultured cells of rice secrete alpha-amylase into the culture medium. It has been shown that the mature form of the alpha-amylase contains xylose-bearing N-linked oligosaccharide: (formula; see text) We demonstrate that suspension-cultured cells of rice secrete alpha-amylase containing oligomannose-type oligosaccharides in the presence of(More)
A nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) activity that catalyzes the hydrolytic breakdown of ADP-glucose (ADPG) has been shown to occur in the plastidial compartment of both mono- and dicotyledonous plants. To learn more about this enzyme, we purified two NPPs from rice (Oryza sativa) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings. Both enzymes are(More)
Genomic analysis predicted that the rice (Oryza sativa var. japonica) genome encodes at least 41 kinesin-like proteins including the novel kinesin O12, which is classified as a kinesin-14 family member. O12 has a calponin homology (CH) domain that is known as an actin-binding domain. In this study, we expressed the functional domains of O12 in Escherichia(More)
To determine the role of alpha-amylase isoform I-1 in the degradation of starch in rice leaf chloroplasts, we generated a series of transgenic rice plants with suppressed expression or overexpression of alpha-amylase I-1. In the lines with suppressed expression of alpha-amylase I-1 at both the mRNA and protein levels, seed germination and seedling growth(More)
We have identified, purified, and characterized 10 alpha-amylase isoforms from suspension-cultured rice (Oryza sativa L.) cells having different isoelectric point values. They had distinguishable optimum temperatures for enzymatic activity and molecular sizes. The results of immunoblotting indicated that polyclonal anti-A + B antibodies bound well to(More)
A polymorphism in rice amylases at an early stage of seed germination is analyzed by zymogram. In non-glutinous cultivars of rice, alpha-amylase isozymes are mainly confirmed in germinating seeds. However, in glutinous cultivars, beta-amylase isozymes, which are not confirmed in nonglutinous cultivars, make up the major part of the total amylase activity(More)
Global climate models predict an increase in global mean temperature and a higher frequency of intense heat spikes during this century. Cereals such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) are more susceptible to heat stress, mainly during the gametogenesis and flowering stages. During periods of high temperatures, grain filling often causes serious damage to the grain(More)
Hormonal regulation of expression of alpha-amylase II-4 that lacks the gibberellin-response cis-element (GARE) in the promoter region of the gene was studied in germinating rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds. Temporal and spatial expression of alpha-amylase II-4 in the aleurone layer were essentially identical to those of alpha-amylase I-1 whose gene contains(More)
A novel pheromonotropic neuropeptide has been isolated from a head extract of the armyworm larvae, Pseudaletia separata, by a seven step purification procedure using an in vivo assay with decapitated female moths of Bombyx mori. Amino acid sequence analysis and comparison with synthetic peptides established the primary structure of the peptide, termed(More)