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In the detergent industry, fungal endoglucanases have been used to release microfibrils (defibrillation) from the surface of dyed cellulosic fabrics to enhance color brightness. Although endoglucanases for laundry use must have various properties, such as a neutral or alkaline optimum pH, resistance to anionic surfactants and oxidizing agents (main(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the potential for clinical application in neuropsychiatry because it enables non-invasive and convenient measurement of hemodynamic response to cognitive activation. Using 24-channel NIRS in 12 healthy men, we examined the replicability of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentration ([oxyHb], [deoxyHb]) changes in the(More)
BACKGROUND Dysfunctions of the prefrontal cortex have been previously reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Previous studies reported that first-degree relatives of individuals with ASD show atypical brain activity during tasks associated with social function. However, developmental changes in prefrontal dysfunction in ASD and(More)
We previously cloned three endoglucanase genes, rce1, rce2, and rce3, that were isolated from Rhizopus oryzae as the first cellulase genes from a member of the subdivision Zygomycota. In this study, two cDNAs homologous to the rce1 gene, designated the mce1 and mce2 cDNAs, were cloned from Mucor circinelloides, a member of the subdivision Zygomycota. The(More)
When plants interact with certain pathogens, they protect themselves by generating various defense responses. These defense responses are induced by molecules called elicitors. Since long ago, composts fermented by animal feces have been used as a fertilizer in plant cultivation, and recently, have been known to provide suppression of plant disease.(More)
In addition to momilactone, phytocassanes A through E (diterpene phytoalexins) were detected in rice leaves in fields suffering from rice blast. Furthermore, phytocassane accumulation was most abundant at the edges of necrotic lesions, indicating that the phytoalexins prevent subsequent spread of the fungus from the infected site. In pot experiments the(More)
Previous morphological studies indicated that development of the human prefrontal cortex (PFC) appears to continue into late adolescence. Although functional brain imaging studies have sought to determine the time course of functional development of the PFC, it is unclear whether the developmental change occurs after adolescence to adulthood and when it(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies have reported that prefrontal hemodynamic dysfunction during executive function tasks may be a promising biomarker of psychiatric disorders, because its portability and noninvasiveness allow easy measurements in clinical settings. Here, we investigated the degree to which prefrontal NIRS signals are genetically(More)
It is well known that short chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) modify intestinal microbiota in animals as well as in humans. Since most murine intestinal bacteria are still uncultured, it is difficult for a culturing method to detect changes in intestinal microbiota after scFOS administration in a mouse model. In this study, we sought markers of positive(More)
Prebiotic fructooligosaccharides are noted for their intestinal immunodulating effects, and the identification of markers for the effects is a matter of great concern. This study aimed to identify marker genes for physiological effects of a particular fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on a host animal and also to define the target of its function in the small(More)