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Transcription initiation factor TFIIB recruits RNA polymerase II to the promoter subsequent to interaction with a preformed TFIID-promoter complex. The domains of TFIIB required for binding to the TFIID-promoter complex and for transcription initiation have been determined. The carboxyl-terminal two-thirds of TFIIB, which contains two direct repeats and two(More)
A complex of two TFIID TATA box-binding protein-associated factors (TA FIIs) is described at 2.0A resolution. The amino-terminal portions of dTAFII42 and dTAFII62 from Drosophila adopt the canonical histone fold, consisting of two short alpha-helices flanking a long central alpha-helix. Like histones H3 and H4, dTAFII42 and dTAFII62 form an intimate(More)
Transcription initiation factor TFIID is a multisubunit complex containing a TATA-box-binding factor (TFIID tau/TBP) and associated polypeptide factors (TAFs) with sizes ranging from M(r) approximately 20,000 to > 200,000. As a result of direct promoter interactions, TFIID nucleates the assembly of RNA polymerase II and other initiation factors into a(More)
The general transcription factor TFIID, which is composed of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and an array of TBP-associated factors (TAFs), has been shown to play a crucial role in recognition of the core promoters of eukaryotic genes. We isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast TAF145 (yTAF145) temperature-sensitive mutants in which transcription of a specific(More)
Embryo quality is a critical parameter in assisted reproductive technologies. Although embryo quality can be evaluated morphologically, embryo morphology does not correlate perfectly with embryo viability. To improve this, it is important to understand which molecular mechanisms are involved in embryo quality control. Autophagy is an evolutionarily(More)
AIMS A number of ASPM mutations have been detected in primary microcephaly patients. In order to evaluate the function of ASPM in brain development, we generated model animals of human autosomal recessive primary microcephaly-5 (MCPH5). METHODS In the Aspm knock-out mice, the exon 2-3 of the Aspm gene was encompassed by a pair of loxP signals so that(More)
Lysosomes are acidic and highly dynamic organelles that are essential for macromolecule degradation and many other cellular functions. However, little is known about lysosomal function during early embryogenesis. Here, we found that the number of lysosomes increased after fertilization. Lysosomes were abundant during mouse preimplantation development until(More)
Genetic, physiological and environmental factors are implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Mutations in the mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) gene, one of the DNA mismatch repair genes, are a main cause of hereditary colon cancer syndromes such as Lynch syndrome. Long-term chronic inflammation is also a key risk factor, responsible for colitis-associated colorectal(More)
Studies show that the radiation dose received during a micro-CT examination may have adverse effects on living subjects. However, the correlations between the biological effects and the radiation doses have never been thoroughly evaluated in the majority of cases. In this study, we evaluated the biological radiation effects of measured radiation doses in(More)
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