Toshiaki Izawa

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The chemokine family plays important roles in cell migration and activation. In humans, at least 44 members are known. Based on the arrangement of the four conserved cysteine residues, chemokines are now classified into four subfamilies, CXC, CC, XC and CX3C. Given that zebrafish is an important experimental model and teleost fishes constitute an(More)
BACKGROUND Controversy persists as to whether double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has any clinical advantage over single-bundle reconstruction. Several studies have used subjective and nonquantitative manual tests to evaluate the rotatory stability of the knee. The authors have developed a method to quantitate the rotatory(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has an elaborate quality control system, which retains misfolded proteins and targets them to ER-associated protein degradation (ERAD). To analyze sorting between ER retention and ER exit to the secretory pathway, we constructed fusion proteins containing both folded carboxypeptidase Y (CPY) and misfolded mutant CPY (CPY*)(More)
BACKGROUND Repair of complete radial meniscal tears is a key to restoring the mechanical integrity necessary to maintain hoop tension in the meniscus. The primary stability of the meniscal repair is one of the most important factors for meniscal healing, but the biomechanical structural properties of different repair techniques for complete radial meniscal(More)
In zebrafish development, Nodal signaling is critical for the induction of endoderm and mesoderm. Three transcription factors downstream of Nodal, Bonnie and Clyde (Bon), Faust (Fau)/Gata5 and Casanova (Cas), are required for endoderm induction. However, it is not yet fully understood how the Nodal signaling pathway regulates the decision process of(More)
T1ρ magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to map proteoglycan (PG) loss in cartilage. Here, we used T1ρ MRI to map cartilage degradation in osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Tissue samples were obtained from five RA patients and 14 OA patients following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Three parameters were measured: First, macroscopic(More)
Although recent findings showed that some Drosophila doublesex and Caenorhabditis elegans mab-3 related genes are expressed in neural tissues during development, their functions have not been fully elucidated. Here, we isolated a zebrafish mutant, ha2, that shows defects in telencephalic neurogenesis and found that ha2 encodes Doublesex and MAB-3 related(More)
Age-related changes in DNA methylation have been demonstrated in mammals, but it remains unclear as to the generality of this phenomenon in vertebrates, which is a criterion for the fundamental cause of senescence. Here we showed that the zebrafish genome gradually and clearly lost methylcytosine in somatic cells, but not in male germ cells during aging,(More)
Because messenger RNAs without a stop codon (nonstop mRNAs) generate stalled ribosomes, cells have developed a mechanism allowing degradation of nonstop mRNAs and their translation products (nonstop proteins) in the cytosol. Here, we observe the fate of nonstop proteins destined for organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Nonstop(More)
The mechanisms responsible for active DNA demethylation remain elusive in Metazoa. A previous study that utilized zebrafish embryos provided a potent mechanism for active demethylation in which three proteins, AID, MBD4, and GADD45 are involved. We recently found age-dependent DNA hypomethylation in zebrafish, and it prompted us to examine if AID and MBD4(More)