Learn More
Clostridial neurotoxins inhibit neurotransmitter release by selective and specific intracellular proteolysis of synaptobrevin/VAMP, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) or syntaxin. Here we show that in binary reactions synaptobrevin binds weakly to both SNAP-25 and syntaxin, and SNAP-25 binds to syntaxin. In the presence of all three(More)
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major food-borne infectious pathogen that causes diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Here we report the complete chromosome sequence of an O157:H7 strain isolated from the Sakai outbreak, and the results of genomic comparison with a benign laboratory strain, K-12 MG1655. The chromosome is 5.5 Mb in(More)
A second gene for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease was identified by positional cloning. Nonsense mutations in this gene (PKD2) segregated with the disease in three PKD2 families. The predicted 968-amino acid sequence of the PKD2 gene product has six transmembrane spans with intracellular amino- and carboxyl-termini. The PKD2 protein has amino(More)
The intracellular signaling proteins that lead to exercise-stimulated glucose transport in skeletal muscle have not been identified, although it is clear that there are separate signaling mechanisms for exercise- and insulin-stimulated glucose transport. We have hypothesized that the 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a signaling(More)
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is among the earliest detectable defects in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To determine the contribution of muscle insulin resistance to the metabolic phenotype of diabetes, we used the Cre-loxP system to disrupt the insulin receptor gene in mouse skeletal muscle. The muscle-specific insulin receptor knockout mice(More)
Genetic linkage maps of the European pear ( Pyrus communis L.) cultivar 'Bartlett' and the Japanese pear ( Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) cultivar 'Housui' were constructed based on AFLPs, SSRs from pear, apple and Prunus, isozymes and phenotypic traits by using their F(1) progenies. The map of the female parent Bartlett consisted of 226 loci including 175 AFLPs,(More)
We have shown that thalidomide (Thal) and its immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), proteasome inhibitor PS-341, and As(2)O(3) act directly on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and in the bone marrow (BM) milieu to overcome drug resistance. Although Thal/IMiDs, PS-341, and As(2)O(3) inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation, they also have multiple and varied(More)
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been hypothesized to mediate contraction and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-beta-D-ribonucleoside (AICAR)-induced increases in glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. The purpose of the current study was to determine whether treadmill exercise and isolated muscle contractions in rat skeletal muscle increase the(More)
Single photon emission computed tomography was used to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow changes during gait on a treadmill in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 age-matched controls. The subjects were injected with [99mTc]hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime twice: while walking on the treadmill, which moved at a steady speed, and while lying on a(More)
We have identified and quantified free D-aspartate in adult rat peripheral organs using gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric and high-performance liquid chromatographic techniques. The level of free D-aspartate was highest in the adrenal, testis, spleen and pituitary, followed by the thymus, lung, ovary, placenta, pancreas and heart, and below the(More)