Toshiaki Furubayashi

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1. In paired-pulse cortical stimulation experiments, conditioning subthreshold stimuli suppress the electromyographic (EMG) responses of relaxed muscles to suprathreshold magnetic test stimuli at short interstimulus intervals (ISIs) (1-5 ms) and facilitate them at long ISIs (8-15 ms). 2. We made paired-pulse magnetic stimulation studies on the response of(More)
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the human primary motor cortex (M1) evokes motor responses in the contralateral limb muscles. The latencies and amplitudes of those responses depend on the direction of induced current in the brain by the stimuli (Mills et al. 1992, Werhahn et al. 1994). This observation suggests that different neural elements(More)
1. We investigated interhemispheric interactions between the human hand motor areas using transcranial cortical magnetic and electrical stimulation. 2. A magnetic test stimulus was applied over the motor cortex contralateral to the recorded muscle (test motor cortex), and an electrical or magnetic conditioning stimulus was applied over the ipsilateral(More)
In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying intracortical I-wave facilitation elicited by paired-pulse magnetic stimulation, we compared intracortical facilitation of I1-waves with that of I3-waves using single motor unit and surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings from the first dorsal interosseous muscle (FDI). We used a suprathreshold first(More)
We investigated the topography of human cortical activation during an antisaccade task by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We used a figure-eight shaped coil, with the stimulus intensity set just above the threshold for activation of the hand motor areas but weak enough not to elicit blinks. TMS was delivered at various time intervals (80,(More)
In order to locate the site of action of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) within the human motor cortices, we investigated how the optimal positions for evoking motor responses over the scalp corresponded to the hand and leg primary-motor areas. TMS was delivered with a figure-8 shaped coil over each point of a grid system constructed on the skull(More)
Paired-pulse magnetic stimulation has been widely used to study intracortical inhibition of the motor cortex. Inhibition at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 1–5 ms is ascribed to a GABAergic inhibitory system in the motor cortex. However, Fisher et al. have proposed that different mechanisms are operating at an ISI of 1 ms and 2.5 ms. In order to confirm(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the effect of a loud auditory stimulus on the excitability of the human motor cortex. METHODS Ten normal volunteers participated in this study. The size of responses to transcranial magnetic or electrical cortical stimulation (TMS or TES) given at different times (ISIs) after a loud sound were compared with those to TMS or TES alone(More)
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a promising tool to induce plastic changes that are thought in some cases to reflect N-methyl-d-aspartate-sensitive changes in synaptic efficacy. As in animal experiments, there is some evidence that the sign of rTMS-induced plasticity depends on the prior history of cortical activity,(More)
OBJECTIVES To study changes in the excitability of the sensory cortex by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in humans. METHODS Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and antidromic sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were elicited by right median nerve stimulation at the wrist before and after low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS over the left(More)