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The initiation and coordination of activity in limb muscles are the main functions of neural circuits that control locomotion. Commissural neurons connect locomotor circuits on the two sides of the spinal cord, and represent the known neural substrate for left-right coordination. Here we demonstrate that a group of ipsilateral interneurons, V2a(More)
Intrinsic circuit of the superior colliculus (SC), in particular the pathway from the optic tract (OT) to neurons in the intermediate layer (SGI), was investigated by whole-cell patch-clamp recording in slice preparations obtained from 17- to 24-d-old rats. Stimulation of the OT induced monosynaptic EPSPs in neurons in the superficial gray layer (SGS) and(More)
The ventral spinal cord consists of interneuron groups arising from distinct, genetically defined, progenitor domains along the dorsoventral axis. Many of these interneuron groups settle in the ventral spinal cord which, in mammals, contains the central pattern generator for locomotion. In order to better understand the locomotor networks, we have used(More)
Neural networks in the spinal cord control two basic features of locomotor movements: rhythm generation and pattern generation. Rhythm generation is generally considered to be dependent on glutamatergic excitatory neurons. Pattern generation involves neural circuits controlling left-right alternation, which has been described in great detail, and(More)
The intermediate grey layer (the stratum griseum intermediale; SGI) of the superior colliculus (SC) receives cholinergic inputs from the parabrachial region of the brainstem. It has been shown that cholinergic inputs activate nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors on projection neurons in the SGI. Therefore, it has been suggested that they facilitate the(More)
Locomotion in mammals is to a large degree controlled directly by intrinsic spinal networks, called central pattern generators (CPGs). The overall function of these networks is governed by interaction between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. In the present review, we will discuss recent findings addressing the role of excitatory synaptic transmission for(More)
We investigated characteristics of identified GABAergic neurons in slices of the superficial superior colliculus (sSC) using transgenic mice in which green fluorescent protein (GFP) is specifically expressed in GABAergic neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings and intracellular staining with biocytin revealed electrophysiological and morphological(More)
In the superficial superior colliculus, a center of sensory processing related to visual salience, glutamate is used as a major excitatory neurotransmitter. alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors include a Ca(2+)-impermeable, outwardly rectifying type (type I) and a Ca(2+)-permeable, inwardly rectifying(More)
It has been reported that GABA(B) receptors are abundantly expressed in the superficial superior colliculus (sSC). To elucidate the action of GABA(B) receptors in the sSC, we tested the effect of a specific GABA(B) receptor agonist baclofen on sSC neurons in slices obtained from rats (16-22 days postnatal) using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Bath(More)