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Neurotransmission in the hippocampus is modulated variously through presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). To establish the precise localization of presynaptic mGluRs in the rat hippocampus, we used subtype-specific antibodies for eight mGluRs (mGluR1-mGluR8) for immunohistochemistry combined with lesioning of the three major hippocampal(More)
A cDNA clone for a new metabotropic glutamate receptor, mGluR5, was isolated through polymerase chain reaction-mediated DNA amplification by using primer sequences conserved among the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) family and by the subsequent screening of a rat brain cDNA library. The cloned receptor consists of 1171 amino acid residues and(More)
The contribution of organic anion transporters to the total efflux of 17beta-estradiol-D-17beta-glucuronide (E(2)17betaG) through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated using the Brain Efflux Index method by examining the inhibitory effects of probenecid, taurocholate (TCA), p-aminohippurate (PAH), and digoxin. E(2)17betaG was eliminated through the(More)
Muscle-fiber pennation angles were measured in vivo with the use of ultrasonography to investigate the relationship between fiber pennation and muscle size for 32 male subjects (from untrained subjects to highly trained bodybuilders). From the image of a B-mode ultrasonogram, fiber pennation angles and thickness of triceps brachii were determined, the(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint running performance in 37 male 100-m sprinters. The sample was divided into two performance groups by the personal-best 100-m time: 10.00-10.90 s (S10; n = 22) and 11.00-11.70 s (S11; n = 15). Muscle thickness and fascicle pennation angle of the vastus(More)
Dd-STAT, the protein that in part controls Dictyostelium stalk cell differentiation, is a structural and functional homolog of metazoan signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs). Although present during growth and throughout development, Dd-STAT's tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear localization are developmentally and spatially regulated.(More)
Despite aggressive treatment, the median survival of patients with high-grade malignant astrocytoma is about 1 year. The authors investigated the safety and clinical response to immunotherapy using fusions of dendritic and glioma cells combined with recombinant human interleukin 12 (rhIL-12) for the treatment of malignant glioma. Fifteen patients with(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) functions specifically to induce lymphangiogenesis. We examined the relationship between expression of VEGF-C and clinicopathological features in patients with colorectal cancer. The expression of VEGF-C in the 99 primary tumours and 18 metastatic lymph nodes from colorectal cancer patients was examined(More)
With increases in the amounts of available DNA sequence data, it has become increasingly important to develop tools for comprehensive systematic analysis and comparison of species-specific characteristics of protein-coding sequences for a wide variety of genomes. In the present study, we used a novel neural-network algorithm, a self-organizing map (SOM), to(More)
Two closely related genes coding for NELL proteins (NELL1 and NELL2) have been cloned by the yeast two-hybrid screening of a rat brain cDNA library with the regulatory domain of protein kinase C betaI (PKCbetaI) as bait. The rat NELL proteins show about 55% identity with each other and contain several protein motifs assigned to a secretion signal peptide,(More)