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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to rescue neuroretinal cells under different toxic conditions. These cells include not only those expressing BDNF receptors (TrkB) but also those not expressing TrkB including photoreceptors. The purpose of this study was to determine the retinal sites at which BDNF and TrkB isoforms are expressed(More)
The facial nerve schwannoma is a rare tumor and it seldom extends into the middle cranial fossa. The typical clinical presentations are progressive facial paralysis and hearing disturbance. We report here a case of huge facial nere facial nerve schwannoma extending into the middle cranial fossa without facial palsy. A 50-year-old man presented with left(More)
PURPOSE To examine the effects of interleukin (IL)-1beta on the resistance and permeability of the tight junctions of cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. METHODS A human RPE cell line (ARPE-19) cultured on microporous filter-supports was used. IL-1beta and monoclonal anti-IL-1beta antibody-treated IL-1beta (mAbIL-1beta) were added to the standard(More)
Visual allesthesia, in which visual images are transposed from one homonymous half-field of visual field to another, is a rare phenomenon. Palinopsia is the persistence or recurrence of visual images after the exciting stimulus object has been removed. Some authors have reported these phenomena, but these pathophysiology has not been understood. We report a(More)
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a component of the ubiquitin system, which has a fundamental role in regulating various biological activities. However, the functional role of the ubiquitin system in neurogenesis is not known. Here we show that UCH-L1 regulates the morphology of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and mediates neurogenesis. UCH-L1(More)
PURPOSE To establish an efficient method of transferring the human brain-derived neurotrophic-factor (hBDNF) gene into human iris pigment epithelial (hIPE) cells by using recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 (rAAV2). METHODS Cultured hIPE cells were treated with either hydroxyurea-sodium butyrate (HUSB; DNA synthesis inhibitor), or tyrphostin-1 (Tyr;(More)
PURPOSE To determine whether subretinal transplantation of iris pigment epithelial (IPE) cells transduced with the adeno-associated virus (AAV2)-mediated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene can protect photoreceptors against phototoxicity. METHODS The BDNF gene was inserted into AAV2 (AAV2-BDNF), and the recombinant AAV2 was transduced into rat(More)
The occurrence of spheroids has been described in the globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) of aged rhesus monkeys. Opinions vary as to the origin of spheroids. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical analysis suggested that spheroids originate from degenerating axons or astroglia. In the present study, we have investigated the GP(More)
The tree-structured speaker clustering was proposed as a high-speed speaker adaptation method. It can select the model which is most similar to a target speaker. However, this method does not consider speaker difference dependent on phoneme class. In this paper, we propose a speaker adaptation method based on speaker clustering by taking speaker difference(More)
OBJECT The authors have attempted to define the exact borders of the root exit zone (RExZ) of the facial nerve, measure the distribution of myelin histologically, and examine the relationship between contact vessels and the RExZ. METHODS Seventy-five facial nerves were obtained from brainstems excised from 44 adult patients at autopsy. The arteries and(More)