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Many applications of neural stimulation demand a high current density from the electrodes used for stimulus delivery. New materials have been searched that can provide such large current and charge densities where the traditional noble metal and capacitor electrodes are inadequate. Titanium nitride, which has been used in cardiac pacemaker leads for many(More)
The productivity of cell culture-derived vaccines grown in anchorage-dependent animal cells is limited by bioreactor surface area. One way to increase the available surface area is by growing cells as monolayers on small spheres called microcarriers, which are approximately 100-250 μm in diameter. In order for microcarrier-based cell culture to be a(More)
Short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are a valuable tool for gene silencing with applications in both target validation and therapeutics. Many advances have recently been made to improve potency and specificity, and reduce toxicity and immunostimulation. However, siRNA delivery to a variety of tissues remains an obstacle for this technology. To date, siRNA(More)
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