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The subventricular zone (SVZ) is the largest germinal zone in the mature rodent brain, and it continuously produces young neurons that migrate to the olfactory bulb. Neural stem cells in this region generate migratory neuroblasts via highly proliferative transit-amplifying cells. The Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway partially regulates the proliferation(More)
Recent studies have revealed that the adult mammalian brain has the capacity to regenerate some neurons after various insults. However, the precise mechanism of insult-induced neurogenesis has not been demonstrated. In the normal brain, GFAP-expressing cells in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles include a neurogenic cell population that(More)
Somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using the pluripotency factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (together referred to as OSKM). iPSC reprogramming erases somatic epigenetic signatures—as typified by DNA methylation or histone modification at silent pluripotency loci—and establishes alternative epigenetic marks of(More)
One of the therapeutics for acute cerebral ischemia is tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Using t-PA after 3 hour time window increases the chances of hemorrhage, involving multiple mechanisms. In order to show possible mechanisms of t-PA toxicity and the effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone, we administered vehicle, plasmin, and t-PA into(More)
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs/NPCs) give rise to neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. It has become apparent that intracellular epigenetic modification including DNA methylation, in concert with extracellular cues such as cytokine signaling, is deeply involved in fate specification of NSCs/NPCs by defining cell-type specific gene expression.(More)
In the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells continually produce transit-amplifying precursors, which generate neuroblasts migrating into the olfactory bulb. Previous studies have suggested that SVZ cells also have the capacity to generate some striatal neurons after cerebral ischemia. The infusion of epidermal growth(More)
Recent studies have shown that administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is neuroprotective. However, the precise mechanisms of the neuroprotective effect of G-CSF are not entirely known. We carried out 90-min transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAO) of rats. The rats were injected with vehicle or G-CSF (50 mug/kg) immediately after(More)
SUMMARY Directed conversion of mature human cells, as from fibroblasts to neurons, is of potential clinical utility for neurological disease modeling as well as cell therapeutics. Here, we describe the efficient generation of human-induced neuronal (hiN) cells from adult skin fibroblasts of unaffected individuals and Alzheimer's patients, using virally(More)
α-Synuclein is implicated both in physiological functions at neuronal synaptic terminals as well as in pathological processes in the context of Parkinson's disease. However, the molecular mechanisms for these apparently diverse roles are unclear. Here we show that specific RNA transcript isoforms of α-synuclein with an extended 3' untranslated region,(More)
BACKGROUND Cerebral ischemia is a major leading cause of death and at the first place cause of disability all over the world. There are a lot of drugs that are in experimental stage for treatment of stroke. Among them are calcium channel blockers (CCBs) that have, in animal models, different effectiveness in healing of ischemic damage in brain. Mechanism of(More)