Toru Shimizu

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The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
systems demand low-energy processing. Until now, however, designers of microprocessors for PCs and engineering workstations have focused mostly on high speed. Microcontroller designers, on the other hand, have taken low power dissipation as a first priority. Today’s portable multimedia system design calls for developers to combine these two approaches,(More)
Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities,(More)
Lesion studies have shown that the avian hippocampus plays a crucial role in homing pigeon (Columba livia) navigation. Using the expression of the immediate early gene protein ZENK in intact pigeons, the authors found regional variation in hippocampal activation as a consequence of homing and, necessarily, the behavior and internal states that accompany it.(More)
Until recently, the exact location of the avian nucleus accumbens within the basal forebrain had not been well established (Reiner et al. [2004] J Comp Neurol 473:377-414). While a number of previous studies have shown afferents and efferents of the presumptive "nucleus accumbens," detailed and accurate connection patterns of this newly recognized area are(More)
Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of avian brains have been based are in error, and as a result that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains. Recognizing this problem, a number of(More)
This 600MHz single-chip multiprocessor consists of two M32R 32b CPU cores[1] and 512kB shared SRAM, and is designed for embedded microcontroller and system on chip (SoC) core. Since software for an embedded systems increases its complexity, embedded processors [2]-[4] are required to increase performance. At the same time, low power dissipation is still a(More)
A heterogeneous multicore SoC (System on a Chip) has been developed for HD (high-definition) multimedia applications that require secure DRM (digital rights management). The SoC integrates three types of processors: two specific-purpose accelerators for a cipher and a high-resolution video decoding; one general-purpose accelerator (MX: Matrix processor);(More)
Birds have excellent visual abilities that are comparable or superior to those of primates, but how the bird brain solves complex visual problems is poorly understood. More specifically, we lack knowledge about how such superb abilities are used in nature and how the brain, especially the telencephalon, is organized to process visual information. Here we(More)