Toru Shimizu

Learn More
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is based on flawed assumptions of homology to mammals. In particular, the outdated terminology implies that most of the avian telencephalon is a hypertrophied basal ganglia, when it is now clear that most of the avian telencephalon is(More)
We believe that names have a powerful influence on the experiments we do and the way in which we think. For this reason, and in the light of new evidence about the function and evolution of the vertebrate brain, an international consortium of neuroscientists has reconsidered the traditional, 100-year-old terminology that is used to describe the avian(More)
systems demand low-energy processing. Until now, however, designers of microprocessors for PCs and engineering workstations have focused mostly on high speed. Microcontroller designers, on the other hand, have taken low power dissipation as a first priority. Today’s portable multimedia system design calls for developers to combine these two approaches,(More)
Many species of birds, including pigeons, possess demonstrable cognitive capacities, and some are capable of cognitive feats matching those of apes. Since mammalian cortex is laminar while the avian telencephalon is nucleated, it is natural to ask whether the brains of these two cognitively capable taxa, despite their apparent anatomical dissimilarities,(More)
Until recently, the exact location of the avian nucleus accumbens within the basal forebrain had not been well established (Reiner et al. [2004] J Comp Neurol 473:377-414). While a number of previous studies have shown afferents and efferents of the presumptive "nucleus accumbens," detailed and accurate connection patterns of this newly recognized area are(More)
Lesion studies have shown that the avian hippocampus plays a crucial role in homing pigeon (Columba livia) navigation. Using the expression of the immediate early gene protein ZENK in intact pigeons, the authors found regional variation in hippocampal activation as a consequence of homing and, necessarily, the behavior and internal states that accompany it.(More)
Many of the assumptions of homology on which the standard nomenclature for the cell groups and fiber tracts of avian brains have been based are in error, and as a result that terminology promotes misunderstanding of the functional organization of avian brains and their evolutionary relationship to mammalian brains. Recognizing this problem, a number of(More)
A heterogeneous multicore SoC (System on a Chip) has been developed for HD (high-definition) multimedia applications that require secure DRM (digital rights management). The SoC integrates three types of processors: two specific-purpose accelerators for a cipher and a high-resolution video decoding; one general-purpose accelerator (MX: Matrix processor);(More)
Birds have excellent visual abilities that are comparable or superior to those of primates, but how the bird brain solves complex visual problems is poorly understood. More specifically, we lack knowledge about how such superb abilities are used in nature and how the brain, especially the telencephalon, is organized to process visual information. Here we(More)
In birds, the entopallium is the primary telencephalic target of the major visual ascending route called the tectofugal pathway. Often functionally compared to the primate geniculo-striate pathway and its subsequent telencephalic (cortical) regions, the latter processes visual information in a parallel fashion in terms of anatomy, physiology, and function.(More)