Toru Sengoku

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DEAD-box RNA helicases, which regulate various processes involving RNA, have two RecA-like domains as a catalytic core to alter higher-order RNA structures. We determined the 2.2 A resolution structure of the core of the Drosophila DEAD-box protein Vasa in complex with a single-stranded RNA and an ATP analog. The ATP analog intensively interacts with both(More)
UTX (KDM6A) and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27) demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27; however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational(More)
Transcriptional activity and chromatin structure accessibility are correlated with the methylation of specific histone residues. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is the first discovered histone demethylase, which demethylates Lys4 or Lys9 of histone H3, using FAD. Among the known monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tranylcypromine (Parnate) showed the most(More)
Tri- and dimethylations of histone H3K9 (H3K9me3/2) and H3K27 (H3K27me3/2), both situated in the "A-R-Kme-S" sequence motif, mediate transcriptional repression of distinct genomic regions. H3K9me3/2 mainly governs constitutive heterochromatin formation, while H3K27me3/2 represses key developmental genes. The mechanisms by which histone-modifying enzymes(More)
To achieve accurate aminoacylation of tRNAs with their cognate amino acids, errors in aminoacylation are corrected by the "editing" mechanism in several aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. Phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) hydrolyzes, or edits, misformed tyrosyl-tRNA with its editing domain in the beta subunit. We report the crystal structure of an N-terminal(More)
Human tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (TrpRS) is secreted into the extracellular region of vascular endothelial cells. The splice variant form (mini TrpRS) functions in vascular endothelial cell apoptosis as an angiostatic cytokine. In contrast, the closely related human tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) functions as an angiogenic cytokine in its truncated form(More)
The bacterial tRNA adenosine deaminase (TadA) generates inosine by deaminating the adenosine residue at the wobble position of tRNA(Arg-2). This modification is essential for the decoding system. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of Aquifex aeolicus TadA at a 1.8-A resolution. This is the first structure of a deaminase acting on tRNA. A.(More)
Post-transcriptional modifications of bases within the transfer RNAs (tRNA) anticodon significantly affect the decoding system. In bacteria and eukaryotes, uridines at the wobble position (U34) of some tRNAs are modified to 5-methyluridine derivatives (xm⁵U). These xm⁵U34-containing tRNAs read codons ending with A or G, whereas tRNAs with the unmodified U34(More)
The H3K4me3 mark in chromatin is closely correlated with actively transcribed genes, although the mechanisms involved in its generation and function are not fully understood. In vitro studies with recombinant chromatin and purified human factors demonstrate a robust SET1 complex (SET1C)-mediated H3K4 trimethylation that is dependent upon p53- and(More)
The helicase fragment of Vasa was purified and its RNA-binding activity was examined by a UV cross-linking assay. The fragment was crystallized in complex with poly(U) RNA (U(10)) and a non-hydrolyzable analogue of ATP. The crystal belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 71.06, b = 142.35, c = 130.47 A, beta = 90.86 degrees. The(More)