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Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inactivates catecholamines and catechol drugs such as L-DOPA. A common genetic polymorphism in humans is associated with a three-to-four-fold variation in COMT enzyme activity and is also associated with individual variation in COMT thermal instability. We now show that this is due to G-->A transition at codon 158 of the(More)
The social amoebae are exceptional in their ability to alternate between unicellular and multicellular forms. Here we describe the genome of the best-studied member of this group, Dictyostelium discoideum. The gene-dense chromosomes of this organism encode approximately 12,500 predicted proteins, a high proportion of which have long, repetitive amino acid(More)
The chronic food shortage that was feared after the rapid expansion of the world population in the 1960s was averted largely by the development of a high-yielding semi-dwarf variety of rice known as IR8, the so-called rice 'green revolution'. The short stature of IR8 is due to a mutation in the plant's sd1 gene, and here we identify this gene as encoding an(More)
A carotenoid biosynthesis gene cluster for the production of astaxanthin was isolated from the marine bacterium Agrobacterium aurantiacum. This cluster contained five carotenogenic genes with the same orientation, which were designated crtW, crtZ, crtY, crtI, and crtB. The stop codons of individual crt genes except for crtB overlapped the start codons of(More)
Tyrosine-based signals within the cytoplasmic domain of integral membrane proteins mediate clathrin-dependent protein sorting in the endocytic and secretory pathways. A yeast two-hybrid system was used to identify proteins that bind to tyrosine-based signals. The medium chains (mu 1 and mu 2) of two clathrin-associated protein complexes (AP-1 and AP-2,(More)
Mouse genetic manipulation has provided an excellent system to characterize gene function in numerous contexts. A number of mutants have been produced by using transgenic, gene knockout, and mutagenesis techniques. Nevertheless, one limitation is that it is difficult to express a gene in vivo in a restricted manner (i.e., spatially and temporally), because(More)
Novel influenza viruses of the H7N9 subtype have infected 33 and killed nine people in China as of 10 April 2013. Their haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase genes probably originated from Eurasian avian influenza viruses; the remaining genes are closely related to avian H9N2 influenza viruses. Several characteristic amino acid changes in HA and the PB2 RNA(More)
The apical and basolateral plasma membrane domains of polarized epithelial cells contain distinct sets of integral membrane proteins. Biosynthetic targeting of proteins to the basolateral plasma membrane is mediated by cytosolic tail determinants, many of which resemble signals involved in the rapid endocytosis or lysosomal targeting. Since these signals(More)
The yeast Candida utilis does not possess an endogenous biochemical pathway for the synthesis of carotenoids. The central isoprenoid pathway concerned with the synthesis of prenyl lipids is present in C. utilis and active in the biosynthesis of ergosterol. In our previous study, we showed that the introduction of exogenous carotenoid genes, crtE, crtB, and(More)
Aquatic photosynthetic organisms, including the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, induce a set of genes for a carbon-concentrating mechanism (CCM) to acclimate to CO2-limiting conditions. This acclimation is modulated by some mechanisms in the cell to sense CO2 availability. Previously, a high-CO2-requiring mutant C16 defective in an induction of the(More)