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The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the neuroanatomical locus of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Here we demonstrate that an abrupt shift in the light/dark (LD) cycle disrupts the synchronous oscillation of circadian components in the rat SCN. The phases of the RNA cycles of the period genes Per1 and Per2 and the cryptochrome gene Cry1 shifted rapidly(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine neural network properties at separate time-points during recovery from traumatic brain injury (TBI) using graph theory. Whole-brain analyses of the topological properties of the fMRI signal were conducted in 6 participants at 3 months and 6 months following severe TBI. Results revealed alterations of network(More)
Mammalian ATR and ATM checkpoint kinases modulate chromatin structures near DNA breaks by phosphorylating a serine residue in the carboxy-terminal tail SQE motif of histone H2AX. Histone H2A is similarly regulated in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The phosphorylated forms of H2AX and H2A, known as gamma-H2AX and gamma-H2A, are thought to be important for DNA(More)
can be inferred in many more species on the basis of characteristic repetitive G-rich telomeric DNA sequences. The near universality of telomerase in eukaryotic species is striking because there are many other solutions, such as protein priming, terminal hairpins, and recombina-Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 tion, that ensure complete replication of linear(More)
P-Cadherin/CDH3 belongs to the family of classic cadherins that are engaged in various cellular activities including motility, invasion, and signaling of tumor cells, in addition to cell adhesion. However, the biological roles of P-cadherin itself are not fully characterized. Based on information derived from a previous genome-wide cDNA microarray analysis(More)
To characterize molecular mechanism involved in pancreatic carcinogenesis, we analysed gene-expression profiles of 18 pancreatic tumors using a cDNA microarray representing 23,040 genes. As pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas usually contain a low proportion of cancer cells in the tumor mass, we prepared 95% pure populations of pancreatic cancer cells by(More)
Telomeres protect the normal ends of chromosomes from being recognized as deleterious DNA double-strand breaks. Recent studies have uncovered an apparent paradox: although DNA repair is prevented, several proteins involved in DNA damage processing and checkpoint responses are recruited to telomeres in every cell cycle and are required for end protection. It(More)
The evolutionarily conserved shelterin complex has been shown to play both positive and negative roles in telomerase regulation in mammals and fission yeast. Although shelterin prevents the checkpoint kinases ATM and ATR from fully activating DNA damage responses at telomeres in mammalian cells, those kinases also promote telomere maintenance. In fission(More)
Although chronic voluntary physical activity has been shown to enhance hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in animals, the effects of forced exercise on a treadmill have not been fully investigated. We assessed induction of c-fos and BDNF expression with acute exercise at different running intensities. The mRNA for c-fos, a(More)
Expression of the inducible transcription factor c-Fos was mapped in the rat medulla oblongata to identify the brain areas respond to different running speeds. Rats were subjected to 30 min of running, either at high speed, low speed or just sitting on a treadmill (control). Blood lactate levels were measured to confirm the physiological impact of different(More)