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c-Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNKs) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are closely related; however, they are independently regulated by a variety of environmental stimuli. Although molecules linking growth factor receptors to MAPKs have been recently identified, little is known about pathways controlling JNK activation. Here, we show that in(More)
Animal cells divide into two daughter cells by the formation of an actomyosin-based contractile ring through a process called cytokinesis. Although many of the structural elements of cytokinesis have been identified, little is known about the signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms underlying this process. Here we show that the human ECT2 is involved in(More)
In model organisms, resistance to inhibitors of cholinesterase 8 (Ric-8), a G protein alpha (G alpha) subunit guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), functions to orient mitotic spindles during asymmetric cell divisions; however, whether Ric-8A has any role in mammalian cell division is unknown. We show here that Ric-8A and G alpha(i) function to orient(More)
In anaphase, microtubules provide a specification signal for positioning of the contractile ring. However, the nature of the signal remains unknown. The small GTPase Rho is a potent regulator of cytokinesis, but the involvement of Rho in contractile ring formation is disputed. Here, we show that Rho serves as a microtubule-dependent signal that specifies(More)
CD44 is a widely distributed cell surface adhesion molecule and is implicated in diverse biological processes. However, the nature of intracellular signaling triggered by CD44 remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that CD44 undergoes sequential proteolytic cleavage in the ectodomain and intracellular domain, resulting in the release of a CD44(More)
Polo kinases play critical roles for proper M-phase progression. They are characterized by the presence of two regions of homology in the C-terminal non-catalytic domain, termed polo-box 1 (PB1) and polo-box 2 (PB2). Here we demonstrate that both PB1 and PB2 are required for targeting the catalytic activity of Plk1 to centrosomes, midbody, and kinetochores.(More)
The human ECT2 protooncogene encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the Rho GTPases and regulates cytokinesis. Although the oncogenic form of ECT2 contains an N-terminal truncation, it is not clear how the structural abnormality of ECT2 causes malignant transformation. Here we show that both the removal of the negative regulatory domain and(More)
The attachment of spindle microtubules to kinetochores is crucial for accurate segregation of chromosomes to daughter cells during mitosis. While a growing number of proteins involving this step are being identified, its molecular mechanisms are still not clear. Here we show that protein kinase C zeta (PKCzeta) is localized at the mitotic spindle during(More)
Regulation of cell polarity is an important biological event that governs diverse cell functions such as localization of embryonic determinants and establishment of tissue and organ architecture. The Rho family GTPases and the polarity complex Par6/Par3/atypical protein kinase C (PKC) play a key role in the signaling pathway, but the molecules that regulate(More)
The ECT2 protooncogene plays a critical role in cytokinesis, and its C-terminal half encodes a Dbl homology-pleckstrin homology module, which catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on the Rho family of small GTPases. The N-terminal half of ECT2 (ECT2-N) contains domains related to the cell cycle regulator/checkpoint control proteins including human XRCC1,(More)