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We report ultrasensitive Ca(2+) indicators, yellow cameleon-Nano (YC-Nano), developed by engineering the Ca(2+)-sensing domain of a genetically encoded Ca(2+) indicator, YC2.60 or YC3.60. Their high Ca(2+) affinities (K(d) = 15-140 nM) and large signal change (1,450%) enabled detection of subtle Ca(2+) transients associated with intercellular signaling(More)
We developed genetically encoded fluorescent inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) sensors that do not severely interfere with intracellular Ca2+ dynamics and used them to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of both cytosolic IP3 and Ca2+ in single HeLa cells after stimulation of exogenously expressed metabotropic glutamate receptor 5a or endogenous histamine(More)
We developed a simple algorithm, i-Score (inhibitory-Score), to predict active siRNAs by applying a linear regression model to 2431 siRNAs. Our algorithm is exclusively comprised of nucleotide (nt) preferences at each position, and no other parameters are taken into account. Using a validation dataset comprised of 419 siRNAs, we found that the prediction(More)
The inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor (IP(3)R) is an intracellular Ca(2+) release channel, and its opening is controlled by IP(3) and Ca(2+). A single IP(3) binding site and multiple Ca(2+) binding sites exist on single subunits, but the precise nature of the interplay between these two ligands in regulating biphasic dependence of channel(More)
We identified a 45-kDa protein by 2D electrophoresis that was enhanced following pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-mediated seizures. Mass-spectrography of this protein revealed the beta subunit of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIbeta), although no evidence for increase in bulk CaMKIIbeta transcripts was obtained. Physicochemical parameters of the(More)
Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) is generally viewed as a global messenger that increases cytosolic calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentration. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics of IP(3) and the functional significance of localized IP(3) production in cell polarity remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate the critical role of spatially restricted IP(3)(More)
Metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR)-dependent calcium ion (Ca²+) signaling in astrocytic processes regulates synaptic transmission and local blood flow essential for brain function. However, because of difficulties in imaging astrocytic processes, the subcellular spatial organization of mGluR-dependent Ca²+ signaling is not well characterized and its(More)
This chapter discusses the nature of mammalian cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections. These play an important role in motor control, but with species differences evident in the innervation patterns of thalamo-cortical (T-C) fibers relaying cerebellar inputs. A phylogenetic comparison of the mode of cerebellar activation of cortical motor regions reveals(More)
Various transcriptional activators are induced in neurons concomitantly with long-lasting neural activity, whereas only a few transcription factors are known to act as neural activity-inducible transcription repressors. In this study, mRNA of DREAM (DRE-antagonizing modulator), a Ca(2+)-modulated transcriptional repressor, was demonstrated to accumulate in(More)
A uniform extracellular stimulus triggers cell-specific patterns of Ca(2+) signals, even in genetically identical cell populations. However, the underlying mechanism that generates the cell-to-cell variability remains unknown. We monitored cytosolic inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) concentration changes using a fluorescent IP3 sensor in single HeLa cells(More)