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Goldfish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regrow their axons after optic nerve injury. However, the reason why goldfish RGCs can regenerate after nerve injury is largely unknown at the molecular level. To investigate regenerative properties of goldfish RGCs, we divided the RGC regeneration process into two components: (1) RGC survival, and (2) axonal(More)
Since Sperry's work in the 1950s, it has been known that the central nervous system (CNS) neurons of lower vertebrates such as fish and amphibians can regenerate after axotomy, whereas the CNS neurons of mammals become apoptotic after axotomy. The goldfish optic nerve (ON) is one of the most studied animal models of CNS regeneration. Morphological changes(More)
Unlike mammals, the fish optic nerve can regenerate after injury. So far, many growth or trophic factors have been shown as an axon-regenerating molecule. However, it is totally unknown what substance regulates or triggers the activity of these factors on axonal elongation. Therefore, we constructed a goldfish retina cDNA library prepared from the retina(More)
Unlike in mammals, fish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) have a capacity to repair their axons even after optic nerve transection. In our previous study, we isolated a tissue type transglutaminase (TG) from axotomized goldfish retina. The levels of retinal TG (TG(R)) mRNA increased in RGCs 1-6weeks after nerve injury to promote optic nerve regeneration both in(More)
Recently, we identified a retina-specific retinol-binding protein, purpurin, as a trigger molecule in the early stage of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. Purpurin protein was secreted by photoreceptors to injured ganglion cells, at 2-5 days after optic nerve injury. Purpurin bound to retinol induced neurite outgrowth in retinal explant cultures and(More)
The major model animal of optic nerve regeneration in fish is goldfish. A closely related zebrafish is the most popular model system for genetic and developmental studies of vertebrate central nervous system. A few challenging works of optic nerve regeneration have been done with zebrafish. However, knowledge concerning the long term of optic nerve(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) signaling results in both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects in CNS and PNS neurons, respectively, after nerve lesioning. We investigated the role of NO signaling on optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). NADPH diaphorase staining revealed that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was up-regulated primarily in(More)
The fish optic nerve regeneration process takes more than 100 days after axotomy and comprises four stages: neurite sprouting (1-4 days), axonal elongation (5-30 days), synaptic refinement (35-80 days) and functional recovery (100-120 days). We screened genes specifically upregulated in each stage from axotomized fish retina. The mRNAs for heat shock(More)
Genipin, a herbal iridoid, is known to have both neuroprotective and neuritogenic activity in neuronal cell lines. As it is structurally similar to tetrahydrobiopterin, its activity is believed to be nitric oxide (NO)-dependent. We previously proposed a novel neuroprotective activity of a genipin derivative, (1R)-isoPropyloxygenipin (IPRG001), whereby it(More)
Transcription of the ratalpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) gene is activated by glucocorticoid, thyroid hormone (T3) and cytokines. Following these treatments, the chromatin structure of this gene was analyzed by means of digestion with DNase I or micrococcal nuclease. Four DNase I hypersensitive sites were observed in the 5'-upstream region of the rat AGP gene(More)