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Goldfish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) can regrow their axons after optic nerve injury. However, the reason why goldfish RGCs can regenerate after nerve injury is largely unknown at the molecular level. To investigate regenerative properties of goldfish RGCs, we divided the RGC regeneration process into two components: (1) RGC survival, and (2) axonal(More)
Genetic studies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have established that a critical element required for the G2----M-phase transition in the cell cycle is encoded by the cdc2+ gene. The product of this gene is a serine/threonine protein kinase, designated p34cdc, that is highly conserved functionally from yeast to man2 and has a relative(More)
Fish CNS neurons can repair their axons following nerve injury, whereas mammalian CNS neurons cannot regenerate, and become apoptotic within 1-2 weeks after the nerve lesion. One explanation for these differences is that one, or several molecules are upregulated in fish CNS neurons during nerve regeneration, and this same molecule is downregulated in(More)
The goldfish optic nerve can regenerate after injury. To understand the molecular mechanism of optic nerve regrowth, we identified genes whose expression is specifically up-regulated during the early stage of optic nerve regeneration. A cDNA library constructed from goldfish retina 5 days after transection was screened by differential hybridization with(More)
Calcium-dependent phospholipid-sensitive protein kinase [protein kinase C (PKC)] was partially purified from the carp (Cyprinus carpio) retina through DE 52 ion exchange and Cellulofine gel filtration chromatography. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) activated PKC in the nanomolar range. A major 38-kDa protein in the retinal(More)
Unlike mammals, the fish optic nerve can regenerate after injury. So far, many growth or trophic factors have been shown as an axon-regenerating molecule. However, it is totally unknown what substance regulates or triggers the activity of these factors on axonal elongation. Therefore, we constructed a goldfish retina cDNA library prepared from the retina(More)
Recently, we identified a retina-specific retinol-binding protein, purpurin, as a trigger molecule in the early stage of goldfish optic nerve regeneration. Purpurin protein was secreted by photoreceptors to injured ganglion cells, at 2-5 days after optic nerve injury. Purpurin bound to retinol induced neurite outgrowth in retinal explant cultures and(More)
The major model animal of optic nerve regeneration in fish is goldfish. A closely related zebrafish is the most popular model system for genetic and developmental studies of vertebrate central nervous system. A few challenging works of optic nerve regeneration have been done with zebrafish. However, knowledge concerning the long term of optic nerve(More)
As the goldfish is a common experimental animal for vision research, including psychophysical behavior, it is very important to quantitatively score fish behavior. We have previously developed a computer image processing system which can acquire the positional coordinates of goldfish moving freely in an aquarium and determine turning directions (go(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) signaling results in both neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects in CNS and PNS neurons, respectively, after nerve lesioning. We investigated the role of NO signaling on optic nerve regeneration in the goldfish (Carassius auratus). NADPH diaphorase staining revealed that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity was up-regulated primarily in(More)