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Greenhouses with sophisticated environmental control systems, or so-called plant factories with solar light, enable growers to achieve high yields of produce with desirable qualities. In a greenhouse crop with high planting density, low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) at the lower leaves tends to limit plant growth, especially in the winter when(More)
Root zone high-temperature stress is a major factor limiting hydroponic plant growth during the high-temperature season. The effects of root zone cooling (RZC; at 25°C) and exogenous spermidine (Spd) root-pretreatment (SRP, 0.1 mM) on growth, leaf photosynthetic traits, and chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics of hydroponic Lactuca sativa L. grown in a(More)
luorescence microscopy is generally used for the research of biology, medical sciences and other life science fields. Especially, recent advances in laser technologies and in optical engineering have made it possible to investigate the nanoscale mechanisms of physiological and molecular biological processes and thus to extend its application to pathological(More)
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