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OBJECTIVES Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by various mechanisms, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a major enzyme generating ROS in the context of inflammation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the involvement of XO in the pathogenesis of MS(More)
BACKGROUND Activation of glial cells is a cardinal feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) pathology, and acetate has been reported to be selectively uptaken by astrocytes in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PET with (11)C-acetate for MS diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Six patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 6 healthy(More)
Approximately one-third of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) respond poorly to interferon-beta (IFN-β) therapy. Serum Sema4A is increased in MS patients, and those who have high Sema4A do not respond to IFN-β therapy. In this study, we investigated whether recombinant Sema4A abrogates the efficacy of IFN-β in mice with experimental autoimmune(More)
Various neuroprotective factors have been shown to help prevention of neuronal cell death, which is responsible for the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, most of these therapeutic potentials have been tested by administration of recombinant proteins, transgenic expression or virus vector-mediated(More)
Accumulating evidence has shown that the inflammatory process participates in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), suggesting a therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory agents. Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), one of the key molecules in inflammation, transduces signals downstream of various inflammatory cytokines, and some Janus kinase(More)
OBJECTIVES The intestinal microflora affects the pathogenesis of several autoimmune diseases by influencing immune system function. Some bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, have been reported to have beneficial effects on immune function. However, little is known about the effects of yeasts. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of various dietary(More)
Reply to comment on: Dietary yeasts reduce inflammation in central nervous system via microflora Kazushiro Takata, Takayuki Tomita, Tatsusada Okuno, Makoto Kinoshita, Toru Koda, Josephe A. Honorat, Masaya Takei, Kouichiro Hagihara, Tomoyuki Sugimoto, Hideki Mochizuki, Saburo Sakoda & Yuji Nakatsuji* Department of Neurology, Osaka University Graduate School(More)
Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (PCD-LEMS) are usually associated with small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). PCD-LEMS with extrapulmonary non-SCLC tumors; however, has not been previously reported. A 78-year-old man presented with dysarthria, dysphagia, staggering gait, and lower extremity muscle fatigue. He was(More)
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