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The effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) on synapse formation was investigated using rat cultured hippocampal neurons. Treatment with FGF-2 (0.4-10 ng/mL) for 6 days enhanced synaptogenesis on these neurons by approximately 50%, as determined by counting puncta immunostained for presynaptic- or postsynaptic-specific proteins. This enhancement was(More)
OBJECTIVE Both the magnitude of brain atrophy and premorbid brain size determine the volume of the brain affected by Alzheimer's disease. To examine the possibility that premorbid brain volume is a determinant of cognitive reserve in patients with Alzheimer's disease, the relation between diffuse brain atrophy and cognitive decline and the impact of(More)
OBJECTIVE Everyday experience suggests that highly emotional events are often the most memorable. Experimental work in animals and humans has demonstrated that the amygdaloid complex plays a crucial role in emotional memory, i.e., memory of events arousing strong emotions. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between medial temporal(More)
We studied 30 necropsy cases of vascular dementia with a lacunar state. Manifestations included dementia, lack of volition, emotional lability, small-stepped gait, dysarthria, urinary incontinence, grasp reflex, pyramidal signs, paraplegia in flexion, and akinetic mutism. Pathologically, there was diffuse incomplete softening of white matter in all cases.(More)
Glucose-sensitive neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area produce orexin-A (hypocretin-1) and orexin-B (hypocretin-2) and send their axons to the hippocampus, which predominantly expresses orexin receptor 1 showing a higher sensitivity to orexin-A. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effects of orexin-A on the performance of Wistar rats(More)
The authors studied 14 patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), 14 patients with AD, and 14 healthy control subjects with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine SPECT. Comparison with the statistical parametric mappings revealed that relative cerebral blood flow was lower in the occipital lobes and higher in the right medial temporal lobe in the DLB(More)
BACKGROUND In an earlier study we showed that a powerful emotional experience (the Kobe earthquake) reinforced memory retention in patients with Alzheimer's disease, but we could not control factors other than the emotional impact of the earthquake. AIMS To test our previous findings in a controlled experimental study. METHOD Recall tests consisting of(More)
We report on a patient with pure transient global amnesia (TGA) whose magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a small region of increased signal intensity in the right hippocampus on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). DWI was sensitive and useful for evaluating the early stage of TGA and might help to explain the pathophysiology of TGA.
PURPOSE To determine the diagnostic potential of MR imaging to show white matter involvement in frontotemporal dementia. METHODS We evaluated MR signal intensity in cerebral white matter by visually inspecting and by quantitatively measuring signal intensity on MR images in 22 patients with frontotemporal dementia. The findings were compared with those in(More)
The association between the apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE E4) allele and a wide spectrum of behavioral symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was investigated. Neither the severity nor the presence of any behavioral changes was associated with the number of APOE E4 alleles, even after controlling for the effects of age at onset, sex, education level,(More)