Learn More
It has long been known that microtubule depletion causes axons to retract in a microfilament-dependent manner, although it was not known whether these effects are the result of motor-generated forces on these cytoskeletal elements. Here we show that inhibition of the motor activity of cytoplasmic dynein causes the axon to retract in the presence of(More)
TPX2, the targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (Xklp2), was identified as a microtubule-associated protein that mediates the binding of the COOH-terminal domain of Xklp2 to microtubules (Wittmann, T., H. Boleti, C. Antony, E. Karsenti, and I. Vernos. 1998. J. Cell Biol. 143:673-685). Here, we report the cloning and functional(More)
Xklp2 is a plus end-directed Xenopus kinesin-like protein localized at spindle poles and required for centrosome separation during spindle assembly in Xenopus egg extracts. A glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein containing the COOH-terminal domain of Xklp2 (GST-Xklp2-Tail) was previously found to localize to spindle poles (Boleti, H., E. Karsenti, and(More)
In all eukaryotes, a microtubule-based structure known as the spindle is responsible for accurate chromosome segregation during cell division. Spindle assembly and function require localized regulation of microtubule dynamics and the activity of a variety of microtubule-based motor proteins. Recent work has begun to uncover the molecular mechanisms that(More)
Migrating cells display a characteristic polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin filaments polymerise in the protruding front of the cell whereas actin filament bundles contract in the cell body, which results in retraction of the cell's rear. The dynamic organization of the actin cytoskeleton provides the force for cell motility and is regulated by(More)
Proteins that in cells specifically bind to growing microtubule plus ends (+TIPs) are thought to play important roles in polarization of the cytoskeleton. However, most +TIPs do not show a bias of their microtubule-binding behavior toward different subcellular regions. Here, we examine the dynamics of the +TIP CLASP in migrating PtK1 epithelial cells. We(More)
Actin in migrating cells is regulated by Rho GTPases. However, Rho proteins might also affect microtubules (MTs). Here, we used time-lapse microscopy of PtK1 cells to examine MT regulation downstream of Rac1. In these cells, "pioneer" MTs growing into leading-edge protrusions exhibited a decreased catastrophe frequency and an increased time in growth as(More)
Regulation of microtubule dynamics is essential for many cell biological processes and is likely to be variable between different subcellular regions. We describe a computational approach to analyze microtubule dynamics by detecting growing microtubule plus ends. Our algorithm tracked all EB1-EGFP comets visible in an image time-lapse sequence allowing the(More)
Polarity of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton is essential for many cell functions. Cytoplasmic linker-associated proteins (CLASPs) are MT-associated proteins thought to organize intracellular MTs and display a unique spatiotemporal regulation. In migrating epithelial cells, CLASPs track MT plus ends in the cell body but bind along MTs in the lamella. In(More)