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BACKGROUND Negative symptoms may be associated with dysfunction of the brain reward system in schizophrenia. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess the BOLD response in the ventral striatum of unmedicated schizophrenics during presentation of reward-indicating and loss-indicating stimuli. METHODS A total of 10 schizophrenic men (7(More)
RATIONALE Clinical studies in patients with schizophrenia suggest that atypical neuroleptics are more effective than typical neuroleptics in reducing negative symptoms including apathy and anhedonia. Dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system may contribute to negative symptoms in schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE We used functional magnetic resonance imaging(More)
The strongest sex differences on any cognitive task, favoring men, are found for tasks that require the mental rotation of three-dimensional objects. A number of studies have explored functional brain activation during mental rotation tasks, and sex differences have been noted in some. However, in these studies there was a substantial confounding factor(More)
OBJECTIVE Although it is well established that cerebral activation increases with higher task load, the potential effects of training have been investigated over brief periods only. Training is of potential clinical relevance since training programs are an essential part of psychiatric therapy. METHOD Cerebral activation during a visual spatial working(More)
OBJECTIVE Alcohol dependence may be associated with dysfunction of mesolimbic circuitry, such that anticipation of nonalcoholic reward fails to activate the ventral striatum, while alcohol-associated cues continue to activate this region. This may lead alcoholics to crave the pharmacological effects of alcohol to a greater extent than other conventional(More)
Recent functional neuroimaging studies have emphasized the role of the different areas within the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) for the perception of various speech stimuli. We report here the results of three independent studies additionally demonstrating hemodynamic responses in the vicinity of the planum temporale (PT). In these studies we used(More)
Applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) techniques, hemodynamic responses elicited by sequences of pure tones of 950 Hz (standard) and deviant tones of 952, 954, and 958 Hz were measured before and 1 week after subjects had been trained at frequency discrimination for five sessions (over 1 week) using an oddball procedure. The task of the(More)
An effect of finger tapping rate on the hemodynamic response in primary motor cortex and the cerebellum has been well established over the last years (the rate effect). The present study compares the magnitude of this effect when either the dominant or subdominant hand is used by right and left handers. In contrast to previous studies maximum and convenient(More)
BACKGROUND Although minor motor and sensory deficits, or neurological soft signs (NSS), are a well-established finding in schizophrenia, the cerebral changes underlying these signs are only partly understood. We therefore investigated the cerebral correlates of NSS by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with schizophrenia and healthy(More)
New episodic memory traces represent a record of the ongoing neocortical processing engaged during memory formation (encoding). Thus, during encoding, deep (semantic) processing typically establishes more distinctive and retrievable memory traces than does shallow (perceptual) processing, as assessed by later episodic memory tests. By contrast, the(More)