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The endospore-forming rhizobacterium Bacillus subtilis- the model system for Gram-positive organisms, is able to produce more than two dozen antibiotics with an amazing variety of structures. The produced anti-microbial active compounds include predominantly peptides that are either ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified (lantibiotics and(More)
Assembly of fully functional GABA(B) receptors requires heteromerization of the GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) subunits. It is thought that GABA(B(1)) and GABA(B(2)) undergo coiled-coil dimerization in their cytoplasmic C termini and that assembly is necessary to overcome GABA(B(1)) retention in the endoplasmatic reticulum (ER). We investigated the mechanism(More)
Group-III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR4, -6, -7, and -8) modulate neurotoxicity of excitatory amino acids and beta-amyloid-peptide (betaAP), as well as epileptic convulsions, most likely via presynaptic inhibition of glutamatergic neurotransmission. Due to the lack of subtype-selective ligands for group-III receptors, we previously utilized(More)
Nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis strains show a high degree of resistance to the action of nisin, which is based upon expression of the self-protection (immunity) genes nisI, nisF, nisE, and nisG. Different combinations of nisin immunity genes were integrated into the chromosome of a nisin-sensitive Bacillus subtilis host strain under the control of an(More)
Bacillus subtilis strain ATCC6633 has been identified as a producer of mycosubtilin, a potent antifungal peptide antibiotic. Mycosubtilin, which belongs to the iturin family of lipopeptide antibiotics, is characterized by a beta-amino fatty acid moiety linked to the circular heptapeptide Asn-Tyr-Asn-Gln-Pro-Ser-Asn, with the second, third, and sixth(More)
The production of the peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) subtilin in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 is highly regulated. Transcriptional organization and regulation of the subtilin gene cluster encompassing 11 genes was characterized. Two polycistronic mRNAs encoding transcript spaBTC (6.8 kb) and encoding transcript spaIFEG (3.5 kb) as well as the monocistronic(More)
A lantibiotic gene cluster was identified in Bacillus subtilis A1/3 showing a high degree of homology to the subtilin gene cluster and occupying the same genetic locus as the spa genes in B. subtilis ATCC 6633. The gene cluster exhibits diversity with respect to duplication of two subtilin-like genes which are separated by a sequence similar to a portion of(More)
Subtilosin A produced by Bacillus subtilis is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic which comprises 35 amino acids. Its molecular mass (3399.7 Da), determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and chemical properties gave experimental support for unusual intramolecular linkages. The three-dimensional fold of native(More)
The subtilin gene cluster (spa) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 is organized in transcriptional units spaBTC, spaS, spaIFEG and spaRK. Specific binding of the response regulator protein SpaR to spaB, spaS and spaI DNA promoter fragments was shown by means of electromobility shift assays. A repeated pentanucleotide sequence spaced by six nucleotides was(More)
The maturation of the peptide antibiotic (lantibiotic) subtilin in Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 includes posttranslational modifications of the propeptide and proteolytic cleavage of the leader peptide. To identify subtilin processing activities, we used antimicrobial inactive subtilin precursors consisting of the leader peptide which was still attached to(More)