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Intense neuronal activity in the sensory retina is associated with a volume increase of neuronal cells (Uckermann et al., J. Neurosci. 2004, 24:10149) and a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular space fluid (Dmitriev et al., Vis. Neurosci. 1999, 16:1157). Here, we show the existence of an endogenous purinergic mechanism that prevents hypoosmotic(More)
To test the hypothesis that G protein-coupled receptors consist of multiple autonomous folding domains, the rat m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was "split" in all three intracellular (i1-i3) and all three extracellular loops (o2-o4). The six resulting polypeptide pairs (Ni1.Ci1, No2.Co2, etc.) were coexpressed in COS-7 cells and studied for their(More)
The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature(More)
Interaction and cross-talk of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are of considerable interest because an increasing number of examples implicate a profound functional and physiological relevance of homo- or hetero-oligomeric GPCRs. The ghrelin (growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)) and melanocortin-3 (MC3R) receptors are both known to have(More)
The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is(More)
Activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome enables monocytes and macrophages to release high levels of interleukin-1β during inflammatory responses. Concentrations of extracellular calcium can increase at sites of infection, inflammation or cell activation. Here we show that increased extracellular calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G(More)
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) regulates pigmentation in humans and other vertebrates. Variants of MC1R with reduced function are associated with pale skin color and red hair in humans of primarily European origin. We amplified and sequenced a fragment of the MC1R gene (mc1r) from two Neanderthal remains. Both specimens have a mutation that was not(More)
By amplifying the melanocortin type 1 receptor from the woolly mammoth, we can report the complete nucleotide sequence of a nuclear-encoded gene from an extinct species. We found two alleles and show that one allele produces a functional protein whereas the other one encodes a protein with strongly reduced activity. This finding suggests that mammoths may(More)
Recent studies with transfected COS-7 cells have shown that functionally inactive mutant V2 vasopressin receptors (occurring in patients with nephrogenic diabetes insipidus) can be functionally rescued by coexpression of a carboxy-terminal V2 receptor fragment (V2-tail) spanning the region where various mutations occur [Schöneberg, T., J. Yun, D. Wenkert,(More)