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The A2a adenosine receptor is a member of the G-protein coupled receptor family, and its activation stimulates cyclic AMP production. To determine the residues which are involved in ligand binding, several residues in transmembrane domains 5-7 were individually replaced with alanine and other amino acids. The binding properties of the resultant mutant(More)
To test the hypothesis that G protein-coupled receptors consist of multiple autonomous folding domains, the rat m3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was "split" in all three intracellular (i1-i3) and all three extracellular loops (o2-o4). The six resulting polypeptide pairs (Ni1.Ci1, No2.Co2, etc.) were coexpressed in COS-7 cells and studied for their(More)
The nuclear envelope (NE) is one of the least characterized structures of eukaryotic cells. The study of its functional roles is hampered by the small number of proteins known to be specifically located to it. Here, we present a comprehensive characterization of the NE proteome. We applied different fractionation procedures and isolated protein subsets(More)
Intense neuronal activity in the sensory retina is associated with a volume increase of neuronal cells (Uckermann et al., J. Neurosci. 2004, 24:10149) and a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular space fluid (Dmitriev et al., Vis. Neurosci. 1999, 16:1157). Here, we show the existence of an endogenous purinergic mechanism that prevents hypoosmotic(More)
The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature(More)
Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest class of GPCR. They are phylogenetically old and have been highly conserved during evolution. Mutations in representatives of this class are associated with severe diseases such as Usher Syndrome, a combined congenital deaf-blindness, or bifrontal parietal polymicrogyria. The main(More)
Gain-of-function mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene have been invoked as one of the major causes of toxic thyroid adenomas. In a toxic thyroid nodule, we recently identified a 9-amino acid deletion (amino acid positions 613-621) within the third intracellular (i3) loop of the TSHR resulting in constitutive receptor activity. This finding(More)
Tight junctions seal the paracellular pathway of epithelia but, in leaky tissues, also exhibit specific permeability. In order to characterize the contribution of claudin-2 to barrier and permeability properties of the tight junction in detail, we studied two strains of Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK-C7 and MDCK-C11) with different tight junctional(More)
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) are involved in directly and indirectly controlling an extraordinary variety of physiological functions. Their key roles in cellular communication have made them the target for more than 60% of all currently prescribed drugs. Mutations in GPCR can cause acquired and inherited diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa (RP),(More)
The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) regulates pigmentation in humans and other vertebrates. Variants of MC1R with reduced function are associated with pale skin color and red hair in humans of primarily European origin. We amplified and sequenced a fragment of the MC1R gene (mc1r) from two Neanderthal remains. Both specimens have a mutation that was not(More)