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Recently, the importance of computer science education in secondary schools has been coming more and more into focus. Students' interests and motivation to pursue a career in CS related fields are highly influenced by school. Also beliefs in the nature of CS are influenced, and necessary foundations in knowledge and skills are built. However, a major(More)
In the year 2004, Bavaria (one of the 16 federal states of Germany) started an innovative subject "Informatics" in its highest type of secondary schools (Gymnasiums). It is comprised of a compulsory stage (grades 6--10), which is followed by an eligible course in grades 11 and 12. The curriculum of the course is based on the "objects first" (or better(More)
The authors introduce the exploration of object-oriented basic concepts as a new approach to object-oriented modelling (OOM). While other subjects have a long tradition in learning by discovery with suitable learning aids (e.g. experimenting installations of the scientific subjects), Informatics at first has to define and to develop such learning aids.(More)
Learning and programming environments used in computer science education give feedback to the users by system messages. These are triggered by programming errors and give only "technical" hints without regard to the learners' problem solving process. To adapt the messages not only to the factual but also to the procedural knowledge of the learners, their(More)