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Basic knowledge about learning capacities and awareness in fish is lacking. In this study we investigated which temporal gaps Atlantic cod could tolerate between two associated events, using an appetitive trace-conditioning paradigm with blinking light as conditioned stimulus (CS) and dry fish food as unconditioned stimulus (US). CS-US presentations were(More)
When animals associate a stimulus with food, they may either direct their response towards the stimulus (sign-tracking) or towards the food (goal-tracking). The direction of the conditioned response of cod was investigated to elucidate how cod read cue signals. Groups of cod were conditioned to associate a blinking light (conditioned stimulus, CS) with a(More)
Behaviour represents a reaction to the environment as fish perceive it and is therefore a key element of fish welfare. This review summarises the main findings on how behavioural changes have been used to assess welfare in farmed fish, using both functional and feeling-based approaches. Changes in foraging behaviour, ventilatory activity, aggression,(More)
Cephalopods have been utilised in neuroscience research for more than 100 years particularly because of their phenotypic plasticity, complex and centralised nervous system, tractability for studies of learning and cellular mechanisms of memory (e.g. long-term potentiation) and anatomical features facilitating physiological studies (e.g. squid giant axon and(More)
Comparative studies are imperative for understanding the evolution of adaptive neurobiological processes such as neural plasticity, cognition, and emotion. Previously we have reported that prolonged omission of expected rewards (OER, or 'frustrative nonreward') causes increased aggression in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Here we report changes in brain(More)
The evolutionary background for cognition and awareness is currently under ardent scrutiny. Poikilothermic vertebrates such as teleost fishes are capable of classical conditioning and have long-term memories, but it remains unknown to what degree such capabilities are associated with affective states. Here, we investigate whether the concept of frustration(More)
In this study we evaluated Pavlovian conditioned food anticipatory behaviour as a potential indicator for stress in groups of Atlantic salmon, and compared this with the physiological stress responses of cortisol excretion into water and hyper-consumption of oxygen. We hypothesised that environmental stress would result in reduced feeding motivation. To(More)
We studied the learning capacities and anticipatory behaviour in a "sit-and-wait" predatory fish, the Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus. In Experiment 1 two groups of halibut received series of light flashes (conditioned stimulus, CS) that started before delivery of food (unconditioned stimulus, US) and persisted until after food delivery, i.e.(More)
When Atlantic salmon parr migrate from fresh water towards the sea, they undergo extensive morphological, neural, physiological and behavioural changes. Such changes have the potential to affect their responsiveness to various environmental factors that impose stress. In this study we compared the stress responses in parr and post-smolt salmon following(More)
This study describes how three individual fish, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.), developed a novel behaviour and learnt to use a dorsally attached external tag to activate a self-feeder. This behaviour was repeated up to several hundred times, and over time these fish fine-tuned the behaviour and made a series of goal-directed coordinated movements needed to(More)