Tord G. Hagervall

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Transfer RNAs from all organisms contain many modified nucleosides. Their vastly different chemical structures, their presence in different tRNAs, their occurrence in different locations in tRNA and their influence on different reactions in which tRNA participates suggest that each modified nucleoside may have its own specific function. However, since the(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) from all organisms on this planet contains modified nucleosides, which are derivatives of the four major nucleosides. tRNA from Escherichia coli/Salmonella enterica contains 31 different modified nucleosides, which are all, except for one (Queuosine[Q]), synthesized on an oligonucleotide precursor, which through specific enzymes later(More)
The tRNA(5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine)-methyltransferase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the modified nucleoside 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridine (mnm5s2U) present in the wobble position of some tRNAs, was purified close to homogeneity (95% purity). The molecular mass of the enzyme is 79,000 daltons. The enzyme activity has a pH optimum of(More)
According to the prevailing model, frameshift-suppressing tRNAs with an extra nucleotide in the anticodon loop suppress +1 frameshift mutations by recognizing a four-base codon and promoting quadruplet translocation. We present three sets of experiments that suggest a general alternative to this model. First, base modification should actually block such a(More)
Transfer RNA (tRNA) from all organisms on this planet contains modified nucleosides, which are derivatives of the four major nucleosides. tRNA from Escherichia coli/Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contains 33 different modified nucleosides, which are all, except one (Queuosine [Q]), synthesized on an oligonucleotide precursor, which by specific(More)
In Escherichia coli, uridine in the wobble position of tRNAGlu and tRNALys is modified to mnm5s2U34. This modification is believed to restrict the base-pairing capability, i.e. to prevent misreading of near-cognate codons and reduce the efficiency of cognate codon reading, especially of codons ending in G. We have determined the influence of the(More)
Eukaryotic ribosomal frameshift signals generally contain two elements, a heptanucleotide slippery sequence (XXXYYYN) and an RNA secondary structure, often an RNA pseudoknot, located downstream. Frameshifting takes place at the slippery sequence by simultaneous slippage of two ribosome-bound tRNAs. All of the tRNAs that are predicted to decode frameshift(More)
Transfer RNA modification improves the rate of aa-tRNA selection at the A-site and the fitness in the P-site and thereby prevents frameshifting according to a new model how frameshifting occurs [Qian et al. (1998) Mol. Cell 1, 471-482]. Evidence that the presence of various modified nucleosides in tRNA also influences central metabolism, thiamine(More)
Deficiency of a modified nucleoside in tRNA often mediates suppression of +1 frameshift mutations. In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain TR970 (hisC3737), which requires histidine for growth, a potential +1 frameshifting site, CCC-CAA-UAA, exists within the frameshifting window created by insertion of a C in the hisC gene. This site may be(More)
The frameshift signal of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) contains two cis-acting signals essential for efficient frameshifting, a heptameric slippery sequence (UUUAAAC) and an RNA pseudoknot structure located downstream. The frameshift takes place at the slippery sequence with the two ribosome-bound tRNAs slipping back simultaneously(More)